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ДВГУПС, английский язык (контрольная работа №4)
20.11.2015, 11:53

Контрольная работа №4 (ПГС)

Вариант 1

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. When making the design of a town we should bear in mind future development.

2. An estimate depending upon the design of the building must be calculated after which work on the building can be started.

3. We know that the main reason of the Tacoma Bridge failure was its extreme flexibility, resulting from aerodynamic instability.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Later, people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the  hot  sunshine became almost as hard as stone.

2. When mixed with water and sand, clay is molded into bricks, which are then dried and baked.

3. Frequently, the conditioning air systems installed in office buildings provide control during winter and summer.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The larger building has an area of 300 m2 and the smaller – 250 m2, width being the same for both.

2. The bricks having been dried in the sun, they put up four walls, and above these they placed a flat roof.

3. The buildings are similar in outward appearance, the difference in size being due to the needs of the Signal and Telecommunication Department for more or less space.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

FLATS IN THE CLOUDS

Blocks of “high rise” flats have been erected in large numbers in  London  and in many other big cities. Just after the Second World War these immense twenty-to-thirty storey buildings, hundreds of feet in height were thought to be  the ideal solution to the dual problem of acute housing shortage and lack of space in urban areas. At first, the ultra-modern apartments were much sought after by city-dwellers, and hundreds of the vast blocks had been built before anyone began to doubt that they were suitable places for people, children especially, to live in. A well known British architect, who personally designed many of these buildings,  now  believes that they may well have inflicted a great deal of suffering on those people who have been housed in them, and evidence has been amassed by sociologists which suggests that severe loneliness and deep depression are brought about by life within these great towers. Some psychologists even maintain that unduly large proportion of their inhabitants suffer from mental disorders and develop criminal tendencies. As a result of the recent studies, plans for new high-rise blocks are being scrapped. They are going to be  replaced by so-called “low-rise” blocks, at most six-storeys high.

 

Вариант 2

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Speaking of residential construction we must say that the apartment houses are mostly built to suit urban conditions.

2. Natural stone is used for footing and foundations for external walls carrying the load.

3. Being brittle concrete can’t withstand tensile stresses, and it can’t therefore  be used in structures subjected to tensile stresses under load.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The design adopted for the new bridge simplified the fabrication of steelwork.

2. Large – panel construction consists of using reinforced concrete panels one  or two stories high, sometimes made of light – weight insulating concrete.

3. When reconstructed the station looked more beautiful than  before.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The ancient houses being built without cement, the remains of only a few of them still exist.

2. The Conference building contains a wide range of facilities: three large  council chambers, each containing about 400 public and 120 press seats.

3. The country was rich in hard and durable (прочный) stone, but poor in timber and metal, the main material used for construction being granite.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Most houses in Britain are still built with bricks but house building is very much more mechanized than it used to be. Contemporary bricklayers, plasters, tilers, glaziers, painters, electricians and plumbers use modern techniques, and work with new kinds of materials and standardized components. The unit- construction of blocks of flats, using large prefabricated concrete panels, is not yet widespread in Britain, however.

The outer walls of most houses and even many blocks of flats are built of brick; stone and wood are used chiefly for decorative purposes. The facades of houses and flats are mostly not cement-rendered, or, if they are, only partly.

Some flats and the great majority of houses - even those being built today – are heated wholly or partly by means of open fireplaces, in which large amounts of coal are burnt. The open coal-fire is not a very efficient way of heating a house, and it is hardly surprising to find that British people employ a wide variety of auxiliary heaters, such as electric fires, space heaters, and night storage heaters. As a rule British bedrooms remain unheated, and in winter are notoriously cold. For this reason hot-water bottles and electric blankets are standard equipment in most homes. 25 years ago central heating was virtually unknown in ordinary dwelling houses, but today it is becoming more  common.

 

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. The framework is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed.

2. Having taken into account aerodynamic stability engineers started to erect economic and graceful bridges.

3. When observing the physical structure we are struck by the complexity of elements.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Parts of a building made at the plants are called prefabricated parts.

2. The coarse stones used in the mix give the concrete its strength.

3. Concrete is strong in compression but weak when used for tensile  stresses.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The leaning tower of Pisa being the amazing relic of the 12th century architecture, the Italian engineers appealed to engineers throughout the  world for help in preserving it.

2. The Italian engineers having appealed for help in preserving the leaning  tower of Pisa, the Soviet engineers were very interested in the  Italian  request.

3. Prefabrication techniques are widely employed to cut construction time, still a great amount of slow hand assembly being involved in constructing homes.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

TYPES  OF  DWELLINGS

In Great Britain the overwhelming majority of dwellings are two-storey houses, built either in rows or joined on to others to form a street, or a square or a circus as an architecturally designed whole (terraced houses), or in pairs, two houses joined together by one common wall and probably with common  chimney stacks (semi-detached houses), with a small enclosed garden at the front and the back. In recent years a considerably higher proportion of new housing has been built in the form of flats, and blocks of flats have now become a common feature of the urban scene. Nevertheless, the traditional British prejudice in favor of houses has only been modified, not  changed.  An increasing number of people, chiefly elderly persons and childless  couples, prefer to live in bungalows. A bungalow is a building of one storey only with or without a verandah. Most of the new residential areas and housing estates have been built on the outskirts of towns and cities, far away from the industrial estates with their factory buildings, warehouses, power stations and railway sidings, and also at a considerable distance from the town  or  city  centers, where most of the new buildings consist of shops, office blocks, luxury flats and public buildings.

A flat is a unit on one floor, as a rule lived by one family (sometimes shared  by two or more), forming part of a large block of flats.

A cottage is a villager’s small dwelling or a small country  residence.

Notes:

a dwelling – жилище, индивидуальный жилой дом

terraced houses – ряд примыкающих друг к другу домов, дома рядовой застройки

a semi-detached house – один из двух домов, стоящих рядом и имеющих  общую стену

a block of flats – многоквартирный жилой дом

a bungalow – одноэтажный дом

a cottage – деревенский дом

a chimney stack – дымовая труба

 

Вариант 4

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. A great number of plants producing precast reinforced-concrete elements are in operation in our country and abroad.

2. Being used for surfacing, laminate gives the tough surface.

3. Cement is widely used as a binding material in large-scale construction, including underwater construction.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Most early engineers were engaged in the construction of fortifications and were responsible for building the roads and bridges required for the movement of troops and supplies.

2. When dried and then baked, the articles become hard and retain their shape, no longer being softened by water.

3. Finishes are mainly plaster, with glazed tiles where necessary.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Some of the earliest houses were built around a courtyard or garden, the rooms opening into it.

2. The Affiliated (филиал) Hospital Center’s main building resembling a four – leaf clover (клевер), traditional long hospital corridors are gone.

3. St. Paul’s Cathedral stands on the site of former Saxon and Norman churches, the latter being destroyed in the Great Fire in 1666, and  the present building being completed in 1710.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Three main alternatives are open to a family seeking a home  in contemporary Britain: they may rent a house or a flat from a private landlord;  they may rent a publicly-owned council house or a flat; or they may buy a house of their own, usually on a mortgage. Most, but not all, privately rented accommodation consists of older houses.

Rents are high and have been rising rapidly. Private tenants who cannot pay higher rents may be evicted, for the housing shortage is so great that  the landlord can usually find a tenant who is willing to pay what he demands.

In the inter-war period, and particularly in the immediate post-war years, large numbers of council houses were built, and let at moderate rents with the help of subsidies from the central government and the local councils. Council houses were, and still are, in great demand. They are democratically allocated  on the basis of waiting or priority lists. It is extremely difficult to obtain a council house or flat nowadays unless the council is forced to rehouse people rendered homeless by slum clearance or road-building projects. Moreover, council rents have also soared in recent years and are sometimes so high that lower-paid workers or old-age pensioners cannot afford to pay them.

 

Вариант 5

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. The method using electricity both for heating the concrete and the concrete mixture is used at especially low temperatures and when making latticework structures (арматурная решетчатая конструкция).

2. The components are assembled into finished buildings by small teams of skilled workers, using tower cranes and other modern mechanical handling devices.

3. Wall panels including doors and glazed area are arranged according to the interior layout required.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Timber, steel and concrete vary, sometimes over considerable ranges in the properties desired by the engineer.

2. The most accurate method of measuring proportions is to weigh the required quantities of each material.

3.  When mixed with water, cement forms mortar which hardens, binding various objects, such as bricks or stones, very firmly.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Large–scale-housing construction is being carried out in many cities, much being done to provide the maximum comfort for the tenants.

2. The rapid progress of housing having required the production of new  materials for homes, like thermal insulation, linoleum, glass of different colors and other durable and light synthetic structural units, many plants were switched to this form of production.

3. The base section of the building is a two- level lobby (вестибюль) and retail concourse (торговый зал) set over the garage, and they being linked to the office cube through the elevator core.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Many find it advantageous to purchase a home, but others find renting more suited to their needs. While there are advantages for both options, renting is generally the best choice for young foreign students. Foreign students often  don’t have good credit histories or enough money to buy a home and need to know that it will not be necessary to find a buyer for the home if they decide to transfer to another school or return home.

There are benefits to renting. A renter is tied down only by the terms of the rental agreement or lease. If a renter wants to move, it is not necessary to find a buyer. In addition, a renter does not have to provide a large down payment as does a homeowner and does not have a good credit history.

A foreign student who plans to return home after college or who wishes to transfer to another school often cannot be tied down to a house. The foreign student often does not have enough money for a down payment or a credit history sufficient to borrow money to purchase a home. Consequently, renting is the answer for most young foreign students.

 

Контрольная работа № 4 (MT)

Вариант 1

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Realizing that the ventilation in this tunnel will be a difficult problem, the builders used a new system.

2. While adopting this system of ventilation the builder hoped to solve this problem.

3. While reconstructing the tunnel the engineers equipped it for a. c. (alternating current) electric traction.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The work on constructing the bridge started in 1925 was completed in 1934.

2. This tunnel was used by vehicles propelled by internal combustion engines.

3. The Mersey Tunnel completed in 1934 is one of the biggest underwater bridges.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The location of the future railroad having been surveyed, the engineers started designing the tunnel.

2. The topography being complicated, special methods of boring were used.

3. There are 95 tunnels on this route, 30 of them having double  lines.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

The Capital’s bridges

None of the 38 bridges across the Moskva River are alike. The oldest bridges, which cross the river, are the Lefortovsky Bridge built in 1770 and the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, which was erected late in the 17th century.  The  Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge spans the river near the Kremlin and is not at all a stone bridge. The name comes from an old structure, which was really made of stone. Now it is a steel bridge although it retains its original name.

Of great interest is the Borodinsky Bridge, the only old bridge preserved  in  its original form. It was constructed in honor of the victory over Napoleon’s army in 1812.

Another one is the monumental Moskvoretsky Bridge, which is finished, in  red granite in accordance with the style and color of the Kremlin walls. It was erected in 1937 to replace the old narrow one.

The example of the suspension type is the Krymsky Bridge built in  1938.  This remarkable engineering structure is attractive in appearance; its roadway is suspended by two steel chains fastened to towers.

The longest bridge in Moscow is the Metro Bridge  in  Komsomolsky  Prospect. It spans the river in its widest place and is about 1,200m in length.

 

Вариант 2

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. The work including the tunnel and its approaches was divided into  sections.

2. The tunnel exceeding in length the Simplon tunnel was opened for traffic in 1962.

3. While completing the tunnel the builders tried to accelerate the work by the use of two shafts.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. On the data indicated the reconstruction of the tunnel was  started.

2. Modern methods used helped to accelerate the tunnel the reconstruction of the tunnel.

3. The tunnel completed and opened to traffic is the first longest railway tunnel.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The Simplon and St. Gothard tunnels were the longest tunnels for a long  time, they having been a model of tunnel construction.

2. Roebling directed construction of the bridge, the construction having been completed in 1883.

3. The cable of the Brooklyn Bridge carries a long span of 1, 595 ½ feet, this span being the first example of the application of steel wire in bridge construction.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Asia’s Longest Suspension Bridge

The Kanmon Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in Asia. It is also the tenth longest bridge in the world. It was opened in 1973. The bridge spans a distance of more than one kilometer over the Kanmon Channel,  which separates two Japanese islands – Honshu and Kyushu.

Until quite recently, the communication between the islands was by two underground tunnels, one for railways and the other for road vehicles. But the ever-increasing volume of traffic under the Channel necessitated the erection of a bridge.

A bridge-building idea was suggested in 1965 and construction work was started some years later.

The deck of the bridge is supported by two towers erected on the opposite sides of the Channel and rising to a height of more than 140 meters above the surface of the water.

The erection of the bridge has influenced the development of the two industrial centers in the area and facilitated the flow of tourist traffic to Kyushu.

Notes:

*Honshu – о-в Хонсю

*Kyushu – о-в Кюсю

 

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. While constructing the tunnel the specialists had to solve many problems.

2. The problem discussed interested all the bridge specialists.

3. The design adopted for the new bridge simplified the  fabrication  of steel work

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The technique used and the experience gained were applied in  the building  of the double – line tunnel.

2. The best material used for piers is wood.

3. In suspension bridges steel cables are to be stretched over the towers with the ends fastened at the anchorage.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The bridge was built by the use of public funds, city politicians having sent hundreds of the unemployed to work on the bridge.

2. Construction work upon this stretch began in 1902, the purpose being to reduce the route distance by 43 miles.

3. The cut off was opened in 1903, the total cost having reached 4 million dollars.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Owing to Brunnel’s shield method and many other improvements in tunnel construction tunneling has become a regular thing in railroad engineering.

A significant progress has been made in tunnel boring in Japan. In this country the world’s longest railway tunnel is to be built to link two  Japan’s  islands Honshu and Hokkaido. The total length of the tunnel is supposed to be nearly 54 km. At some points the tunnel is to be bored 240 m below the sea surface and 100 m above the sea bottom.

You may have heard about the project of the Channel Tunnel which would permit to link London and Paris by a direct journey. This project has been much talked about for the last 150 years. The tunnel would have many points in its favor: it would not interfere with navigation, neither would it be affected by weather conditions.

The long history of the Channel Tunnel began in 1802 when a French engineer Albert Matthew prepared a scheme of a tunnel to link France and England. If this tunnel had been built the communication between these two countries could have been facilitated.

 

 

Вариант 4

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Bridge structures carrying high – speed railways are subjected to intensive vibration.

2. The new Moscow Canal Road Bridge crossing the canal on the same line as the old one has three spans.

3. We know that the main reason of the Tacoma Bridge failure was its extreme flexibility resulting from aerodynamic instability.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The bridge was not the only type of crossing considered.

2. Some of the arch bridges constructed by the Romans two thousand  years ago are still standing.

3. How to obtain simplicity and economy of foundation work was one of the  most important questions considered.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The design of this bridge having been completed, the construction gang began their work.

2. The building of the double – line tunnel being completed, the train capacity of the road increased greatly.

3. The   topography of the site being abnormally complicated, the work proceeded at a speed of 4 meters a day.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

It is not so hard to build railways in open, level country. But railways must be built in cities, they must cross high mountains and wide, deep rivers.

Mountains and rivers are obstacles which people met in the past and meet today in the way of their travel. To overcome these obstacles people have to build such engineering structures as tunnels and bridges.

People began to build bridges in the pre-historic times. Different natural phenomena (явление) might suggest the idea of a bridge: a tree fallen across a river, lianas in tropical countries, and other similar things.

Today, we have many types of bridges: simple beam bridges (балочный мост), beautiful arch bridges, very complicated suspension bridges (висячий мост) and other structures. Some of them are built of steel, others are built of concrete.

At first people designed bridges empirically, that is, they depended on the experience gained from their successes and failures. They had no basic knowledge of mathematics and did not know how the wind influences the bridge structure, which resulted in great tragedies.

The development of railways was closely connected with bridge building because railways necessitated the erection of stronger bridges capable of carrying much greater loads than ordinary road bridges.

 

Вариант 5

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Having taken into account aerodynamic stability engineers started to erect economical and graceful bridges.

2. Being riveted of steel plates and angles the plate girder can carry a considerable load.

3. The bridge being constructed over this river will connect very important industrial regions.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The design adopted for the new bridge simplified the fabrication of steelwork.

2. The problem discussed interested all the bridge specialists.

3. The old bridge has a complicated superstructure arranged in five  spans.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. It took them 26 months to construct four gigantic cables of the Brooklyn Bridge, for the first time steel wire having been used for their manufacture.

2. The right place for the abutments having been found at last, the construction work began.

3. In a bowstring girder the horizontal thrust is taken by the tie, the vertical members being of secondary importance.

 

4.Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

The most interesting type seems to be a suspension bridge. This bridge consists of two towers built on the opposite banks of a river or a valley and used as supports for cables. A roadway, often double-deck, is suspended from the cables by means of vertical connections.

The first modern suspension bridge  to carry railway tracks was designed  and built by John Roebling, who later gained worldwide fame as the builder of New York’s Brooklyn Bridge. In 1855, a most complicated task faced the  builders of bridges. They were to span the 1,000-foot (300m) wide  Niagara  river. The rapid waters prevented from building piers. Most men, including experienced builders, refused the job. Then a brilliant idea came to J.Roebling – why not to build a suspension bridge? Although engineers had known the principle of suspending a bridge long before, they did not believe such a bridge  to be stable enough to carry trains. It was J.Roebling who was the first to prove the possibility of using suspension bridges for railway traffic. If the idea to apply  a suspension bridge had not come to the famous builder, the rapid waters of the Niagara river and many other swift rivers would not have been bridged.

 

Контрольная работа № 4 (СЖД)

Вариант 1

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Having adopted this innovation the railroad greatly reduced running costs. (расходы по эксплуатации)

2. The number of trains passing over this section was increased to 99 daily.

3. We worked the whole day leveling the roadbed.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The traffic was handicapped by the bottleneck caused by long gradients and shark curves.

2. Some specialists consider that the suspended monorails will find a wide application.

3. The ties on the railroad track are laid on a crushed rock bed called ballast, which is a very necessary element of the permanent way.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Smooth running of the trains being impaired by joints, the rails have to be welded.

2. The route of the future railway track having been surveyed, the gangs of the construction workers began to lay the track.

3. It is much cheaper to lay the track on a plain than in a mountainous region, with other conditions being equal.

 

4.Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

DESCRIPTION OF THE TRACK

The two rails of a track produce a most economical path for the smooth passage of heavily loaded vehicles at great speed. Sleepers or ties hold the two rails at the exact distance or gauge throughout and transfer the loads from the rails to the ballast. The ballast provides a  resilient bed, keeps  the sleepers  in the correct position and at the correct level, distributes the load from the  sleepers to a large area on the bed or formation of the track and drains off rainwater. The rails are fixed to the sleepers with various types of fittings, which depend on the type of the rail used, and on various other considerations. The rails, which are manufactured in standard lengths, are joined together with fishplates or joint bars through which fish bolts or track bolts are  threaded.

The combination of rails, sleepers, fittings, ballast, etc., is known as the track or permanent way.

A railway track is required to bear very heavy loads and to permit such loads to move in safety at high speed.

 

Вариант 2

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Each track consisting of two rails will have an average weight of about 188 pounds per yard.

2. I saw workers packing ballast under the ties.

3. Ballast supporting the track structure is made of broken stone.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Various types of fittings depend on the type of the rail used.

2. Heavy well-ballasted and properly cored rails are suitable for speeds of up to 250 km/h.

3. There are some specific problems caused by operating a high volume of freight and passenger traffic on the same lines.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The new method of welding standard rails together having been discovered, the smooth running of the trains was reached.

2. The track being laid, the rail - grinding machine grinds the rails.

3. The faults in the rails having been detected, the rails were renewed.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Prestressed concrete slabs on concrete ties

A number of railroad-highway crossings have been installed or are in the process  of  being   installed on two railroads,  which  consist  of  prestressed concrete ties and slabs. The crossing components consist of three rectangular prestressed concrete panels, and two wedge-shaped ‘precast reinforced concrete’ ‘bumper panels', the latter two being placed at the ends of the crossings.

The prestressed panels are all 5ft long and five are required to extend across  the track. The slabs are installed with ends flush so that a line of five panels forms a section 5ft long. This arrangement permits the slabs to .be used in virtually any crossing, provided the length of the crossing is a multiple of 5ft.    The slabs are installed on top of prestressed concrete ties, which have been previously installed in the track. The ties are attached to the rails by the direct- fixation method', that is, without tie plates'. The slabs rest on 1/8-in. thick rubber pads cemented to the tops of the ties, both inside and outside the  rails.

Notes:

*precast... concrete – сборный бетон

*bumper panel – упругая панель

*direct-fixation method – метод непосредственного прикрепления

*tie plate – шпальная подкладка, пластинка

 

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Having treated ties with creosote, the railway men laid them in the  track.

2. Passing the curve any train has to decrease its speed.

3. Having been highly appreciated, long welded rails are now widely used in every country of the world.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Manufactured in standard lengths, the rails are joined together with fishplates or joint bars.

2. The railway track consists of two parallel rails supported on and fastened to a series of supports, called ties or sleepers.

3. Recently the ties consisted almost universally of wood treated with a preservative material to protect it against decay.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Traffic density and the relatively short life  of the timber sleeper have led to  the introduction of the prestressed concrete sleeper, its average life being from 40-to 50 years.

2. The number of tracks having been determined, the engineers calculated the width of ballast correspondingly.

3. Trains becoming heavier and longer, high-output heavy-duty locomotives are to be used.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

LAYING WELDED RAILS

Up until 1962 welded rail had been used by the Missouri Pacific primarily through tunnels, station grounds and major grade crossings. Since 1962, however, all new rail and most of the recovered relay rail, 90 lb. (pounds) or heavier, has been welded into strings 1,440 feet long. A welded string is comprised of 37 new rails 39 feet long or 40 relay rails cropped to 36-feet lengths. The welds are made by the electric-flash butt-welding process at a  plant.

At the present time the road has two rail-transport trains. Each train is comprised of 33 flatcars. The cars are provided with three tier roller supports, each tier of which  accommodates 12 rails. Hence, each train carries a  total of 4.9 miles of rail. The rail trains are moved in the head ends of regularly scheduled freight trains at speed of not more than 40 mph. Prior to leaving the plant a car of ballast is placed at each end of the rail train as a safety measure.

 

Вариант 4

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Railroads with one track must have turnouts or passing sidings.

2. Rails weighting 50 kg per meter and more have already been laid on one- third of the trunk lines.

3. Alongside reconstruction of the existing network of railways, many new lines are being built.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. As a result of improved loading, the railways have been able to carry increased traffic.

2. The railways of the most developed countries had been in serious trouble by the 1960’s.

3. The railway track is supported on a graded surface known as the roadbed or sub grade.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Broken granite, limestone and gravel are used as ballast, sand and earth being used sometimes too.

2. The tendency towards adoption of long welded rails being more and more evident, investigations of welding processes are carried out in a number of countries.

3. Tie renewals, surfacing and lining having been made, the gang may lay welded rail.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

VARIOUS TYPES OF SLEEPERS

Sleepers originally consisted of slabs of stone or longitudinal bulks of timber laid under the rails. Both these types were discarded, as in the first case the running was rough and the noise was very great. Longitudinal sleepers were found to be expensive as they had to be of a large section  to satisfactorily support the rail and the cost of timber increases rapidly with increase in section. Cross sleepers, which were first introduced in 1835, are now employed universally. They are made of wood, steel cast iron or concrete. A sleeper that fulfils all requirements most satisfactorily is the wooden sleeper. As the number  of sleepers required is enormous and as timber is becoming scarce, sleepers of other materials are being used in increasing numbers in many countries.

Notes:

*treated wooden sleepers – пропитанные деревянные шпалы

*reinforced block – железобетонный блок

*prestressed concrete – предварительно напряженный бетон

 

Вариант 5

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Operating under a foreman, a gang consisting of 5 operators and 10 trackmen renews ties half a mile of track per day.

2. Side by side with reconstruction of the existing railway network new lines  have been constructed on a large scale.

3. The Trans-Siberian trunk line connecting the European  part of Russia  with the Far East is the longest in the world.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. A very important task in the development of the railways is the accelerated increase of the train and traffic capacity in the lines along routes with  intensive freight traffic.

2. The intensive introduction of the latest scientific and engineering achievements and improved technological processes help to develop the railway transport.

3. The Trans-Siberian trunk line called the life artery is the main communication line between Siberia and the Far East.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Everything having been done for laying the track, the workers went home.

2. Steel rails gradually replaced iron ones, the progress  being accelerated  by the invention of the new process of steel marking.

3. Sleepers may be of wood, concrete, prestressed concrete or steel, concrete sleepers being widely used.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

WORLD’S SHORTEST RAILROAD

Only a few of us may have heard or read about the world’s shortest railroad.  It ran in northern New York for a distance of seven-eighths of a mile! The rolling stock handling the service included one locomotive, two open coaches and a baggage car. This rolling stock was supposed to carry ten thousand passengers a  year,  as  well as  heavy  loads  of  freight.  The  railroad  connected  two laces spanning the unnavigable part of the Marion River. Steamers were to meet the train at both ends of the line and to transfer passengers and freight. In winter, however, with thick ice covering the lakes, the steamers stopped running and, with them, the world’s smallest railroad.

Needless to say that other, more efficient means of transportation should have been used to handle the traffic all the year round. But at that time the line was considered to economical justify its existence. Indeed, it carried its load successfully for nearly thirty years. And it might have performed its duty for many years to come but for the construction of a highway between the two lakes. The result was that the litt le railroad was of business.

 

Контрольная работа № 4 (B и В)

Вариант 1

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Depending upon local conditions three types of trenches are used for laying water pipes.

2. The high capital cost of new large water projects, rising pumping costs and worsening ecological damage call for a shift in the way water is valued.

3. Agriculture and industry would have to be met through more productive and innovative uses of existing supplies rather than by expanding supplies through construction projects.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The institute is an organization based in Washington that does research on issues involving resources.

2. There is a discrepancy between the existing freshwater resources and the expected demands.

3. Only an insignificant part of the world’s water stock can become quickly involved in the economic cycle.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод  независимого причастного оборота.

1. Desalination water from the world ocean will be the main source of the fresh water in the future, desalination methods being constantly  improved.

2. The purity of the Nevis river, one of the full-flowing rivers in Lithuania will be assured by the recently commissioned first stage of the major drainage  water – purifying complex being built near Vilnius.

3. Water resources being preserved from pollution, the other problems can be solved by peaceful cooperation of all countries.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Freshwater resources and water quality

A number of estimates suggest that of all the water around globe, 94 per cent is salt water in the oceans and 6 per cent is fresh. Of the latter, about 27  per cent is in glaciers and 72 per cent is underground. This leaves at any one time less than 1 per cent of the fresh water in the atmosphere or in streams and lakes. This fresh water supply is continually replenished by precipitation as rain or snow. It has been estimated that the total annual runoff from continents is about 41,000 cubic kilometers. Of these, 27,000 cubic kilometers return to the sea as flood runoff, and another 5,000 cubic kilometers flow into the sea in uninhabited areas. This cycle leaves 9,000 cubic kilometers of water readily available for human exploitation worldwide. As both the world’s population and usable water are unevenly distributed, the local availability of water varies  widely. Much of the Middle East

and North Africa, parts of Central America and the western United States are already short of water. By the year 2000, many  countries  experienced excessive scarcity of water due to increasing demand for water for agriculture, industry and domestic use.

 

Вариант 2

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Plans for the construction of the complexes elsewhere will be going ahead as part of a program calling for complete purification of household and industrial water drainage by the year 2000.

2. Water-protection belts covering an overall length of some 125,000 km have already been designated.

3. The closed water cycle became possible thanks to a new canal running from a hilly area sown with grain, cereals down to the reservoir.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод  Participle 2.

1. The republic’s Academy of Sciences has been instructed to carry out coordination of all projects related to the Dnestr River.

2. Russia has been consistently implementing a program aimed at achieving an optimum relationship between society and nature.

3. Practically every tenth ruble of the investments made into our national economy is spent on nature conservation.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Water being our priceless boone, it’s customary to speak of water with respect.

2. The population in our country will reach 170 million by 2000, the urban population increasing by 50 million.

3. The type of trenches being selected on the basis of engineering and economical comparison of the freezing depth of soil, there are three kinds of trenches.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

The demand for water varies markedly from one country to another and depends on population and on prevailing level and pattern of socioeconomic development. Marked differences exist between developed and developing countries. For example, the average per capita domestic use of water in the United States is more than 70 times that in Ghana. Worldwide water use increased dramatically from about 1360 cubic kilometers in 1950 to 4,130 cubic kilometers in 1990 and is expected to reach about 5,190 cubic kilometers by 2000. Although the uses to which water is put vary from country to country, agriculture is the main drain on the water supply. Averaged globally, 69 per cent of water withdrawn goes for that purpose, 23 per cent for industry  and  8  per cent for domestic purposes.

Assuring an adequate supply is not the only water problem facing many countries throughout the world: they need to worry about  water  quality. Concerns about water quality have been growing since 1960s. At first, attention centered on surface water pollution from point sources, but more recently groundwater and sediment pollution and non-point sources have been found to be at least equally serious problems.

 

Вариант 3

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. The removal and treatment of household waste is a pressing problem in large modern cities.

2. The canal having opened raised the production of the “white gold” by 20,000 tons.

3. The most economical way of raising the production of cotton was to widen  the existing canal.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. The important environmental protection laws adopted in our country of late have already born fruit.

2. The money allocated for the construction of purifying installations is used timely and to the full.

3. In Institute of Colloidal Chemistry and Chemistry of Water in the Ukraine have suggested new method of reclaiming activated carbons used as absorbers in purification.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. The depth of the trenches being established in accordance with the project, it should correspond to the depth to which pipes are usually laid.

2. The temporary water supply stations being selected, the presence and location of the sources are taken into consideration.

3. The elements for the structures being used for temporary water supply, they should be prepared at the central construction yard.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

The basic type of pollution is that caused by the discharge of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater into rivers, lakes and reservoirs. With the growth of industry, industrial wastewaters discharged into water bodies have created new pollution problems. Another water quality problem is the increasing eutrophication of rivers and lakes caused mainly by the runoff of fertilizers from agricultural lands. Acidification of lakes by acidic deposition is common in some European countries and in North America. Wastes can also be carried to lakes and streams along indirect pathways – for example, when water  leaches  through contaminated soils and transports the contaminants to a lake or river. Dumps of toxic chemical waste on land have become a serious source of groundwater and surface water pollution. In areas of intensive animal farming or where large amounts of nitrate fertilizers are used, nitrates in groundwater often reach concentrations that exceed guidelines established by WHO. The problem has become a cause of concern in some European countries and in the USA  and is growing in magnitude in some developing countries.

 

Вариант 4

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Depending upon local conditions three types of trenches are used for laying water pipes.

2. The most economical way of raising the production of cotton was to widen  the existing canal.

3. Water-protection belts covering an overall length of some 125,000 km have already been designated.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод  Participle 2.

1. Specially treated anthracite coal produces multiples of microspores, which help to trap molecules of impurities.

2. There is a discrepancy between the existing freshwater resources and the expected demands.

3. Only an insignificant part of the world’s water stock can become quickly involved in the economic cycle.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Other conditions being equal, preference should be given to  water intake  from underground sources.

2. The population in our country will reach 170 million by 2000, the urban population increasing by 50 million.

3. Water resources being preserved from pollution, the other problems can be solved by peaceful cooperation of all countries.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

Water use has not been efficient in many countries. Over-exploitation of groundwater (mostly a non-renewable source) has led to the depletion of resources in some areas and to increased encroachment of saline waters into aquifers along coastal zones in some countries. (e.g. in North Africa and in the Persian Gulf). There are fears that the rapid expansion of agriculture in desert areas may lead to over-exploitation of groundwater for irrigation. Excessive irrigation has also led to water logging and salinization, thereby accelerating  land degradation. The lack of maintenance of water delivery systems and over- use of water for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes, especially in the developing countries, have caused a host of socio-environmental and economic problems. Pools of water around faulty standpoints in rural areas and marginal settlements have become breeding grounds for various disease vectors. Water seepage has affected the interior and exterior of houses, historical buildings and monuments, and in some areas has caused occasional overflow of drainage  and sewage systems.

 

Вариант 5

1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 1.

1. Depending upon local conditions three types of trenches are used for laying water pipes.

2. The removal and treatment of household waste is a pressing problem in large modern cities.

3. The canal having opened raised the production of the “white gold” by 20,000 tons.

 

2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle 2.

1. Only an insignificant part of the world’s water stock can become quickly involved in the economic cycle.

2. Russia has been consistently implementing a program aimed at achieving an optimum relationship between society and nature.

3. The money allocated for the construction of purifying installations is used timely and to the full.

 

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.

1. Desalination water from the world ocean will be the main source of the fresh water in the future, desalination methods being constantly improved.

2. The temporary water supply stations being selected, the presence and location of the sources are taken into consideration.

3. The type of trenches being selected on the basis of engineering and economical comparison of the freezing depth of soil, there are three kinds of trenches.

 

4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:

The quality of fresh water depends not only on the quality of waste entering the water but also on the decontamination measures that have been put into effect. Although organic waste is biodegradable, it nonetheless presents a significant problem especially in developing countries. Human excreta contain pathogenic microorganisms as the water-borne agents of cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and contaminated water has caused the outbreak of epidemics  of these diseases in several developing countries. Industrial waste may include heavy metals and many other toxic and persistent chemicals not readily degraded under natural conditions or in conventional sewage-treatment plants. Unless these wastes are adequately treated at the sources or prevented from discharge into watercourses, the freshwater quality can be seriously impaired. The high content of nutrients in rivers and lakes has created eutrophication. Apart from ecological and aesthetic damage eutrophication brings increasing difficulties and costs for water treatment works, which have to produce safe, palatable drinking water. Acidification of fresh water lakes has affected aquatic life to various degrees.





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