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НТЭК, английский язык (контрольная работа №2)
02.12.2016, 14:52

Вариант 1

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.

Types of meeting

Meetings come in all shapes and sizes, of course. Here are some types:

• chat (informal discussion) with colleagues at the coffee machine.

• brainstorming among colleagues: where as many ideas as possible are produced quickly, to be evaluated later.

• project meeting / team meeting of employees involved in a particular activity.

• department/departmental meeting.

• meeting with suppliers, for example to negotiate prices for an order.

• meeting with a customer, for example to discuss a contract.

• board meeting: an official, formal meeting of a company's directors.

• Annual general meeting / AGM (BrE); annual meeting (AmE): where shareholders discuss the company's annual report.

• EGM: extraordinary general meeting: a shareholders' meeting to discuss an important issue such as a proposed merger.

How was the meeting?

Some colleagues are discussing a meeting they have just come out of.

Anil: I thought it was very productive.

Juliet: Well, I thought it was a complete waste of time. I didn't hear anything I didn't already know.

Barbara: I agree with Anil. I felt we had some very useful discussions, and that we reached an agreement that was good for both sides. We certainly covered a lot of ground. It was incredible the number of things we got through. Juliet:      But there were too many digressions. John was rambling and kept wandering off the point. He just uses meetings as a chance to show off. Just like a lot of men: he just wanted to show how powerful he is and what a good talker he is. Anil: But to be fair, the chair really kept things moving: she encouraged people to be brief and to stick to the point and we achieved a lot of short time. Anyway, I learned a lot and I think they listened to what we had to say.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все  вопросы.

We could cancel the order because they had already sent it.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

Не left for Moscow.  The text is being translated at the moment.  These toys are made by children. 

 All letters had been written when we came.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

Those books (return) to the library yesterday. Thousands of new houses (build) every year. 

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

 to issue — issuance — issuing — issued

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

 I did not know that you already (to read) this book.  He said that the bus (to be) here soon. 

Задание 7.  Вспомните первые 5 пунктов типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения:( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

 When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for their phone calls to their local service providers.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

Is there anybody here __ can introduce me to the President of the company?

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

If water freezes, it has become a solid.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

Mary said, "I like music."

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

Did you decide against __ married this year? (get) 2. I wanted __ to the movies, too. (go)

I will consider ___your judgement, (accept) 7. I've definitely decided against __ to California, (go)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

It's foolish to make a decision without knowing the facts.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки:

Не (go) out when the weather (get) warmer.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish the customers were not late as usual. If I came later I would be late for the lesson.

 

Вариант II

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.

The role of the chairperson

Before the meeting

'A good chairperson has to be a good

organizer. What they do before the meeting is as important as the meeting itself. They should make sure the agenda (the list of things to be discussed) is complete by asking those involved what should be on it and then circulating (distributing) it to everyone concerned. They should check the venue, making sure the room will be free, without interruptions, until the end of the meeting.'

During the meeting

The chairperson should be a good timekeeper. They should start the meeting on time, without waiting for latecomers.

They should appoint a minute-taker to take the minutes, making sure that opinions and action points (where participants agree to do something) are noted.

They should make sure each point on the agenda is allocated the time it deserves and should keep to the timetable. When the time allocated to one point is up, the chair should make sure that discussion moves on to the next point, even if the issue has not been completely covered or resolved (decided).

The chair should make sure that each participant has the chance to make their point, and should deal tactfully with disagreements, making sure that each side feels their point of view has been noted. They should also try to avoid digressions, where people get off the point.

Finally, they should ensure the meeting finishes on time, or early.

Follow-up

After some meetings, it's necessary for the minutes to be circulated, especially if there are action points that particular people are responsible for.

At the next meeting, the chair should ask for the minutes to be read out and see if all agree that it is an accurate record of what happened, and see if there are any matters arising (any points from the last meeting that need to be discussed). And they should check what progress has been made on the action points from the previous meeting.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все вопросы.

The inflation influenced our business in the Middle East very badly.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

 The news will be of great interest.Do you work at this office? Does he work here? This film is much spoken about.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

The paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month. This room (not use) for a long time.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

to export — export — exporting — exported

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

 They decided that they (to bring) us all the books we need. I decided that next year I (to go) to the Black Sea coast. 

Задание 7.  Вспомните первые 5 пунктов типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

If you raise no objection, I think you agree to what 1 suggest.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

We are prepared to reduce the price of the toothpaste ___ is approaching its sell-by date.

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

If Mr Hunt is single, I could introduce him to my sister.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

Victor said, "Please give me the contract."

 Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

 I wanted __ to the movies, too. (go). I've definitely decided against __ to California, (go)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

It's important to get enough sleep.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки:

I (wait) for you until you (come) back from work.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish the letter hadn't been so long. If he had known the time-table he wouldn't have missed the train.

 

Вариант III

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Meetings : points of view

Opening the meeting.  We can open a meeting with the words. OK, let's get started. ( It's about time we got started?/ Let's make a start/Let's begin, shall we? /Let's get down to business?/Shall we make a start?)Then we say'As you know, I've called this meeting to discuss the situation in our department. The managers have a lot of freedom to work as they wish, but it seems that things are getting out of control ...'

We could also say: 

- I've arranged this meeting to ...

-  As you are aware ...       

- The purpose of this meeting is to ...

- The main objective is to ...

Inviting people to speak. People then use some of these expressions. Inviting someone to start:

- Would you like to open the discussion, Greta?        

- Greta, would you like to kick off?

- Perhaps you'd like to get the ball rolling, Greta.

Asking for one person's opinion:

- What about you, Keith?

- What do you think about this, Keith?

- What are your feelings on this, Keith?

- What are your views on this, Keith?

Asking for everyone's opinion:

• What's the general feeling on this?

Making your point. The other participants use some of these expressions, choosing ways of making your point include:

 -The way I see it...

-Personally, I think ...

-It's clear to me that..

-It looks to me as if ...

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все  вопросы.

They will make their advertisement soon.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

They were speaking to him. When I saw him, he was going home. Is he working now?  The machine is being tested now. 

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

Why your home task (not do)?  The children (take) to the circus tomorrow.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

to advise — advice — advising — advised

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

I told them that I (to leave) for Minsk next day. . The students wanted to know when they (to pass) their examinations. 

Задание 7.  Вспомните первые 5 пунктов типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

You should bring the floppy discs which we need for the analysis of our data.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

 I'm talking about the advertisement ___ appeared in Kiev Post of March 26.

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

We wish that you will change your mind about leaving tomorrow.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

 He said, "I'm very busy"

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

He refused __ a new car this year, (buy).   She kept on __ her mind, (change).

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

 It isn't essential to g somewhere.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки:

I'm afraid the train (start) before we (come) to the station.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish you wouldn't be slow. I wish I had known this before.

 

Вариант IV

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Discussion

Discussion without argument? It is very important to keep calm in meetings:

'In a meeting, you discuss things. In the discussion, some people may agree with you. Others may disagree. They may have differences of opinion with you, but the important thing is to keep calm and remain courteous. It's OK to disagree, but it's not OK to be impolite or rude or to lose your temper.

An argument is when people disagree about something, perhaps becoming angry. Your argument is also the set of ideas that you use to prove your point: to show that what you are saying is true.'

Agreeing

Strong agreement:

-You're perfectly right. The costs involved must be incredible.

- I couldn't agree more. We got our latest recruits after we won the industry award for best advertisement.

-Precisely. Creativity comes to some of our people in the middle of the night.

-Exactly. We have to look at the company as one unit.

-Absolutely. It's the output, not the input, that counts.

Mild agreement:

- You may be right there. We're already ten per cent over budget.

- That's true, I suppose. There must be some limits on when they work.

-I suppose so. They seem to arrive and then go straight out again to eat.

Disagreeing

Mild disagreement:

- That's not really how I see it. Everyone should be allowed to work in the way that's best for them.

- I don't really agree. The prizes are important, but people would come to work for us anyway.

- I can't really go along with you there. I think we need to see people at their desks actually working.

- I think you're mistaken. If  they get to work late, they don't go out for lunch.

-I'm afraid I can't agree with you there. All you financial people do is worry about costs.

Strong disagreement:

- I'm sorry, but that's out of the question. You can't expect people to come back at nine in the morning.

- I think you're wrong. The design department's costs are justified because of our high quality work.

- Of course not. The latest figures I've seen show that the project is within budget.

-  That's absurd. There must be some sort of control on when people work.

-  That is rediculous. Each department has very specific needs.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все вопросы.

We are printing our catalogues by Friday this week.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

. She studied many subjects. They will have passed their exams by 3 o'clock. The conference will be held in May. His work has been already fin­ished. 

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

The patient (take) to the hospital today, and (operate) tomorrow morning. This book (leave) in the classroom yesterday.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

to require — requirement — requiring — required

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

He said we (may) keep the books as long as we (to like).  We understood at once that this control work (to be) a difficult one.

Задание 7.  Вспомните первые 5 пунктов типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

All the information that you need is in this report

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who. We are searching for a place __ we can have a new office.

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее. We will wait if you wanted to leave.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение. She said, "Ring me later."

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

   She kept on __ her mind, (change). I like __ advice to everyone, (give)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

It impossible for me to go up north this summer.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки: We (go) to the country tomorrow if the weather (to be) fine.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish I could go to my work by car. I would have sent a letter to you if I had known your address.

 

Вариант V

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Hedging

Hedging is when you avoid disagreeing directly. To hedge, you could say:

- I take your point about punctuality, but clocking in and out would not be very popular./ I understand what you're saying about the needs of each department, but each department must be treated in an appropriate way./ I see/know what you mean, but we must look at the human factors as well as the numbers./ I hear where you're coming from on this, but we must remember this is an advertising agency, not a car factory.

Checking understanding, interrupting, referring back

To interrupt someone politely may be said:

- Can I come in here? /Sorry to interrupt you, but./ If I can just stop you for a moment...

To refer back to what was said earlier:

-As we were saying earlier ./ To go back to what I was just saying ../ To go back to what X was saying earlier ...

To check that you understand what someone has said:

-Are you saying that...?If I understand (you) correctly/…, - Are you suggesting that…?/- If I follow you .../ Are you implying that... ?

Agreement, consensus or compromise?

One expert talks about how to deal with agreements and disagreements:

'It may be possible to reach agreement or to reach an agreement about something, or at least come to a consensus: something that most people can agree with. It may be possible to compromise or to find a compromise: an agreement where people accept less than they wanted at first.  Or perhaps the differences are so great that there will just be disagreement. Something in particular that you disagree about is a disagreement.'

Concluding

The chare person sums up and brings the meeting to a close:

'Right. I'm afraid we're running out of time so we're going to have to stop there. To go over what's been said, there is a disagreement about timekeeping and budgets in our department. I've listened to both sides of the argument. I think I can sum it up by saying that it's a problem of creativity versus control. I think you'll just have to agree to disagree. I'll let you know my decision about the solution to this problem by the end of the month. So unless anyone has anything else to add, I think that's it. Thank you all for coming.'

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все  вопросы.

We make the compressors for those machines here.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

The film was much spoken about.  8. This book was written by our teacher. 17. The machine is being tested now. 

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

This room (use) only on special occasions.  The children (take) to the circus tomorrow.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

to ship — shipment — shipping — shipped

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

He said we (may) keep the books as long as we (to like).  We understood at once that this control work (to be) a difficult one.

Задание 7.  Вспомните первые 5 пунктов типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for their phone calls to their local service providers.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who. Is there anybody here __ can introduce me to the President of the company?

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

 If Mr Hunt is single, I could introduce him to my sister.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

John said, "I've already done it."

 Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

I wanted __ to the movies, too. (go). I like __ advice to everyone, (give)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим. It's hard to do some work on holiday.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки: We (not pass) the examination  if we not (work) much harder.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish it would stop raining. If I had met you yesterday I would have told you about it.

 

Вариант VI

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Negotiations 1: situations and negotiators. Types of negotiation

If people negotiate (with each other), they talk in order to reach an agreement which is to their mutual advantage (good for them both). For example:customer-supplier negotiations, merger or takeover negotiations, wage negotiations, trade negotiations.

Negotiations also take place to settle disputes (decide arguments) such as:

contract disputes, labour disputes,  trade disputes

Word combinations with 'negotiations' (+)

Someone who takes part in negotiations is a negotiator, and someone who is good at getting what they want is a tough negotiator.

Bargaining

Another word for 'negotiate' is bargain. This is also used to talk specifically about discussing and agreeing the price of something. Another name for 'negotiator' is bargainer.

Another word for 'negotiation' is bargaining, used especially in phrases like:

collective bargaining, pay bargaining, wage bargaining (discussions between groups of employees and their employers about pay and conditions)

Negotiating scenario

At the beginning of a negotiation, follow these steps:

-Meet and greet representative! of the other company and introduce your colleagues.

-Offer coffee and small talk. Try to create a relaxed atmosphere.

-Go to the meeting room and suggest that you get down to business.

-Have a clear agenda and a timetable.

-First, give the background to the negotiations. Talking about the situation is a good way of reminding people of key facts and issues.

-Then kick off the

negotiations themselves, perhaps by finding out more about the priorities of the other side (the things they think are most important) or talking about your own requirements.

Задание2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все вопросы.

He has not fixed the date for the next appointment.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

New subjects will be studied next year. We shall be writing our tests at 10 o'clock. This work must be done at once. Your letter will have been answered by Monday.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

Litter must not (leave) here. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination.) yesterday.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

 to reimburse — reimbursement — reimbursing -reimbursed

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

He did it better than we (to expect). He told us that he (to do) this work himself. 

Задание 7.  Вспомните с 6 пункта остальные пункты типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will increase.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

Jorge Lopez. I seem to remember that name. Isn't he the man __we owe the check to?

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

If they have a good sale, I would have stopped by on my way home.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

Mr White asked, "When is MV Orion arriving in Odessa?"

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

We decided against going to the movie, We planned to study instead.

I enjoy __ advice to everyone, (give)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

It difficult to plan your future.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки:

If you (not drive) more carefully you (have) an accident.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish the customers were not late as usual. If I were in your place I wouldn't buy the tickets beforehand.

 

Вариант VII

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Preparing to negotiate

an expert on negotiation explains roles. Before negotiations begin, preparing and planning are very important.

a Get as much information as possible about the situation. If dealing with people from

another culture, find out about its etiquette and negotiating styles: the way people negotiate, what they consider to be acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, and so on.

b Work out your initial bargaining position: what are your needs and objectives (the things that you want to achieve)? Decide your priorities (the most important objectives).

с Try to estimate the needs and objectives of the other side.

d Prepare a fallback position: conditions that you will accept if your original objectives are not met.

e Perhaps you are in a position to influence the choice of venue: the place where you are going to meet. If so, would you prefer to:

-be on your own ground / on home ground (in your own offices)

-go to see the other side on their ground (in their offices)

-meet on neutral ground, for example in a hotel?

f If you are negotiating as part of a negotiating team, consult your colleagues about points a to e, and allocate roles and responsibilities.'

Negotiating scenario. At the beginning of a negotiation, follow these steps:

-Meet and greet representative! of the other company and introduce your colleagues.

-Offer coffee and small talk. Try to create a relaxed atmosphere.

-Go to the meeting room and suggest that you get down to business.

-Have a clear agenda and a timetable.

-First, give the background to the negotiations. Talking about the situation is a good way of reminding people of key facts and issues.

-Then kick off the

negotiations themselves, perhaps by finding out more about the priorities of the other side (the things they think are most important) or talking about your own requirements.

Negotiating styles. When you're negotiating with people from other cultures, it's important to think about what they consider as 'normal' behaviour. You'll need to think about the following:

body language, conversational rules,  hierarchy, physical contact, relationship building,            

attitudes to time.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все  вопросы.

We received this letter from Continental Equipment a week ago.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

I am work­ing now. The work will have been done when he come. They can be seen in our library every day.  I was told to wait in the reception room.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

This newspaper (not read) because the pages (not cut). The children (take) to the circus tomorrow.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

 to check — check — checking — checked

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

He said that he (can) not do it without my help. It was decided that we (to begin) our work early.

Задание 7.  Вспомните с 6 пункта остальные пункты типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

AH employees who have worked for our firm five or more years are entitled to four personal days a year.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

They take on extra staff at Easter. That's the time of the year ___ they are at their busiest

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

If 1 had more time, I would checked my paper again.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

The manager asked, "Will the container be ready for dispatch 18th November?"

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

 Did you decide __ married next year instead? (get) I intend__у our judgement (accept)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим. It difficult to plan your future.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки:

You (be) late if you (not take) a taxi.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

I wish the letter hadn't been so long. If I had known that you needed help I would have helped you.

 

Вариант VIII

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Furthering negotiations

Win-win

In a successful negotiation, everyone should leave the negotiating table happy with the outcome: there shouldn't be winners and losers. The negotiators should try to reach a win-win solution: an agreement of equal benefit to both sides. This can be achieved in a number of ways.

Probing

One way of furthering negotiations is probing (asking the right questions and listening carefully to the answers). Here are some probing questions:

a What is the situation on production at your plant at the moment?

b What sort of quantities are you looking for?

с What are we looking at in the way of discount?

d What did you have in mind regarding specifications?

e What were you thinking of in terms of delivery dates?

f How important to you is the currency for payment?

Proposal and counter-proposal

Through a series of proposals or offers from one side and counter-proposals or counter-offers from the other side, the two sides work towards an agreement which will benefit them both.

Trade-offs

When you offer to change your position to one that is less favourable to yourself, you make a concession. Perhaps this is in exchange for a concession from the other side, although there is no guarantee of this. Your concession may be a goodwill gesture: a concession that you make hoping that the other side will see this as friendly and make a concession in return.

Even in a friendly negotiation, there may be horse-trading, with each side making a series of concessions in return for concessions from the other side. (This expression is often used to show disapproval.) If you argue about something for a long time, especially about the price of something, you haggle.

A series of concessions in exchange for concessions from the other side is a series of trade-offs.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все вопросы.

We can pay in advance if you want..

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

The text has been already written by them.  We trans­lated this text. The delegation was met at the airport. Your letter will have been answered by Monday.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

This book (leave) in the classroom yesterday. This room (not use) for a long time.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

to release — release — releasing — released

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

The boy did not know that he already (to receive) a good mark. We saw that our teacher just (to go out) and he (to come back) soon.

Задание 7.  Вспомните с 6 пункта остальные пункты типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

John stood where she had left him.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

I'm looking for the person _.        coat's lying on my desk.

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

If Diana didn't drink so much coffee, she wouldn't have been so nervous.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

Victor said, "I enjoyed my visit to England in February/*

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

He insisted on __ to the movies, (go)

8. I don't plan __ to California, (go)

Задание 13.Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

 It's a good idea to spend a few days on the beach.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки: I (finish) reading this book before I (go) to bed.

Задание 15 Переведите на русский язык:

 I wish you wouldn't be slow. If I came later I would be late for the lesson.

 

Вариант IX

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Negotiations : difficulties

Confrontation

Sometimes one side is in a stronger position than the other: they have more bargaining power. For example, during a recent strike at Lamda Inc., the company was in financial difficulty and the public was on the workers' side, so Lamda was negotiating from weakness. The strikers' union knew this: they were negotiating from strength.

The union made demands: objectives that were so important that they were unwilling to change them. They wanted a 15 per cent pay increase. Later they moderated these demands, and said they would accept ten per cent. However, their demand for a week's extra holiday was non-negotiable: they would not accept less.

Lamda said they were being forced to accept something that they did not want. They accused the union of making them negotiate under duress.

Eventually Lamda conceded to most of the union's demands and gave them what they wanted. The media said that Lamda had backed down, climbed down and given in.

The feelings had been very strong on each side: the dispute was bitter, and the negotiations were confrontational and adversarial.

Confrontational negotiating tactics

Although using tricks isn't recommended, there are negotiators who:

• issue threats, final offers or ultimatums: they say that the other side must accept something, with very bad consequences for them if they refuse.

• lie and bluff: they threaten to do something that they do not intend to do, or are not able to do.

Of course, you can always call someone's bluff: pretend to believe them, when you know they are bluffing.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все  вопросы.

They had to discuss the Contract before his departure.

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

He studies at our college.  10. The letter had been written before we came. 15. The child was often left home alone. 16. All letters had been written when we came.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

This newspaper (not read) because the pages (not cut). Usually the floor (sweep) every day, but it (not sweep) yesterday.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

 urgent — urgently — urgency;

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

We saw that our teacher just (to go out) and he (to come back) soon. We knew that he not (to be able) to make Ms work in time and (to decide) to help him.

Задание 7.  Вспомните с 6 пункта остальные пункты типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will increase.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

Do you remember that restaurant in Paris __ we had such a good time.

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

Jerry wishes that she is more interested in his work.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

Mary said, "I wll stay in Kiev for two weeks".

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

 She wouldn't consider ___ a new car this yean (buy)

I don't plan __ to California, (go)

Задание 13. Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.

It's enjoyable to res a novel.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки:

You must (send) us a telegram as soon as you (arrive).

Задание 15.  Переведите на русский язык:

I wish I could go to my work by car. If he had known the time-table he wouldn't have missed the train.

 

Вариант X

Задание 1. Текст прочитать, списать и сделать перевод на русский язык.   

Deals

Dealing with problems

When negotiations get stuck, and don't progress, there are a number of things you can do.

a Underline common ground: the areas where agreement has been reached.

b Reassure the other side on key points that have been decided: confirm that you have not changed your mind.

с Be willing to compromise on your original objectives: be ready to accept less than you wanted in exchange for compromises from the other side.

d Identify the exact obstacles or sticking points: the problems that are causing negotiations to become difficult.

e.Postpone discussions until later so that each side can reconsider its position.

Agreements and contracts

An agreement of any kind is a deal. When you reach an agreement, you can talk about clinching a deal or closing a deal.

A bargain is also an agreement reached through negotiation. People who get what they want in a negotiation are said to drive a hard bargain.

An agreement may be in the form of a contract. 'Contract' is used in these combinations:

- employment   contract  (labour (BrE) labor (AmE))-is about what someone has to do in their job, or about what a particular group of employees have to do.

-binding legal  contractforces both sides to carry out the actions that they had promised to carry out, by law.

-commercial contractis about buying or selling a product

- oral / verbal  contract     is not written down.

Checking the deal

It's important to check the points of an agreement to avoid misunderstandings. You could say:

Let me just go/run over (repeat and summarize) the main points.

On A, we agreed that ...

As far as В is concerned (in relation to B), we agreed ...

We still have the question of С to settle (decide and agree on).

And there's still the outstanding (remaining undecided) issue of D.

We'll send you a written proposal.

Задание 2. Перевести предложение. Задать к нему все вопросы.

The Seller has sold and the Buyer has bought the equipment at the fair..

Задание 3. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого:

You are working, aren't you? We shall inform you. These houses were built last year. His work has been already fin­ished. 

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, поставьте гла­голы в нужные формы страдательного залога:

The paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month. This room (not use) for a long time.

Задание 5. Определите, какими частями речи являются слова и переведите их:

 to receive — receipt — receiver;

Задание 6. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения:

He did it better than we (to expect). It was decided that we (to begin) our work at eight o'clock.

Задание 7.  Вспомните с 6 пункта остальные пункты типового договора о купле-продаже

Задание 8. Определите вид придаточного предложения: ( обстоятельственное, определительное и именное). Проанализируйте члены в обоих предложениях

AH employees who have worked for our firm five or more years are entitled to four personal days a year.

Задание 9. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения и союзы: who, that, which, when, where, whose, whom, who

Jorge Lopez. I seem to remember that name. Isn't he the man __we owe the check to?

Задание 10. Найдите ошибку в  предложении и исправьте ее.

If they have a good sale, I would have stopped by on my way home.

Задание 11. Переведите из прямой речи в косвенную  предложение.

Mr White asked, "When is MV Orion arriving in Odessa?"

Задание 12. Вставьте вместо пропусков инфинитив либо герундий.

She wouldn't consider ___ a new car this yean (buy)

She refused __ her mind, (change)

Задание 13. Преобразуйте приведенное ниже предложение таким образом, чтобы герундий стал подлежащим.  It is difficult to plan your future.

Задание 14. Раскройте скобки: We (have) a picnic tomorrow if it (be) a fine day.

Задание 15.  Переведите на русский язык:

I wish it would stop raining. It would be better if you learned to drive a car.





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