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ПИЭФ, английский язык (контрольная работа)
13.09.2016, 18:46

Выбор варианта контрольной работы осуществляется согласно первой букве фамилии:

Выбор варианта контрольной работы

Буква

Вариант

Тема

А, Б, В, Г, Д, Е

I

Exporting

Ж, З, И, К, Л, М

II

What is business ?

Н, О, П, Р, С

III

The market

Т, У, Ф, Х, Ц

IV

The role of the market

Ч, Ш, Щ, Э, Ю, Я

V

What is economics ?

 

I Вариант

Exporting

When a company exports goods abroad there are many problems it must consider, e.g. packaging, transportation, insurance and payment. First the goods must be packed to containers to protect them from damage. The containers or crates must be labeled clearly to show where they are going. The label may also show what the crates (containers) contain. Goods can be transported by sea or by air, by a shipping company or by an airline. If the goods are shipped then transportation must be arranged from the factory to the docks or quay. This can either be by road in tracks (or lorries) or by rail. The shipment must be insured (covered) against loss or damage in transit, i.e. while it is being transported. Sometimes the exporter takes out insurance and sometimes the importer insures the shipment. It depends on the terms of their agreement. If the goods are damaged in transit the company is covered by the insurance. Of course, someone has to pay for all these things. While goods are in transit they are called freight or cargo, so the company pays freight rates or shipping cost to the shipping company. If the goods are being transported by air, the company pays to the airline. The cargo is loaded at the docks or at the airport, and for this the company pays handling charges. Also the company must pay packaging charges or costs. Exporting brings foreign currency into the country, so governments encourage export trade by giving assistance to the exporters. Often companies borrow money (finance) from banks to finance exporting. This money is called export credit. A government department called the E.C.G.D. (Export Credit Guarantee Department) gives a guarantee to the bank. This guarantee means that the government carries the loss, if the foreign buyer does not pay. It is a kind of insurance cover for the bank and the exporting company. Another form of government assistance or incentive is tax relief or tax advantages. Every company must pay a proportion of its earnings to the government in the form of tax. Tax relief means that exporters pay less tax on money earned abroad.

1. Является ли утверждение  «There are no problems in exporting goods abroad»

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

2. Является ли утверждение «Tax is a kind of insurance cover for the bank and the exporting company.»

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

3. Найдите английские эквиваленты: налог, скидка с налога, обязательство, иностранный покупатель, валюта, правительственная поддержка, страховка, транспортировать по воздуху, погрузочно-разгрузочные расходы, грузовой тариф.

4. Ответьте на вопросы:

a) What does E.C.G.D. mean?

b) What are the ways of transporting the goods?

c) When goods are called freight or cargo?

5. Сформулируйте главную мысль текста.

 

II Вариант

What is business?

Business is a word which is commonly used in many different languages. But exactly what does it mean? The concepts and activities of business have increased in modern times. Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today it has a more technical definition. One definition of business is the production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for profit. To examine this definition, we will look at its various parts.

First, production is the creation of services or the changing of materials into products. One example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next these products need to be moved from the factory to the marketplace. This is known as distribution. A car might be moved from factory in Detroit to a car dealership in Miami.

Third is the sale of goods and services. Sale is the exchange of a product or service for money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for money. Goods are products which people either need or want, for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities which a person or group performs for another person or organization. For instance, an auto mechanic performs a service when he repairs a car. A doctor also performs a service by taking care of people when they are sick.

Business, then, is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution, and sale. However, there is one other important factor. This factor is the creation of profit or economic surplus. A major goal in the functioning of an American business company is making a profit. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid. Creating an economic surplus or profit is, therefore, a primary goal of business activity.

1. Является ли утверждение  «Today, the word “business” means the exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed »

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

2. Является ли утверждение «Profit is the most important factor in the process of business making »

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

3. Найдите английские эквиваленты:, торговля, распространение, предоставлять услугу, обмен, главная цель, превращение/изменение, избыток/излишек, продажа, товар , увеличиться.

4. Ответьте на вопросы:

a) What does the word “business” mean?

b) Business is a combination of production, distribution, and sale, isn’t it?

c) What is the main goal of  business activity?

5. Сформулируйте главную мысль текста.

 

III Вариант

The Market

We can define markets in a very general way as arrangements through which prices guide resource allocation. But there is a narrower definition.

A market is a set of arrangements by which buyers and sellers are in contact to exchange goods or services.

Some markets (shops and fruit stalls) physically bring together the buyer and the seller. Other markets (The London Stock Exchange) operate chiefly through intermediaries (stockbrokers) who transact business on behalf of clients. In supermarkets, sellers choose the price, stock the shelves, and leave customers to choose whether or not to make a purchase. Antique auction force buyers to bid against each other with the seller taking a passive role.

Although superficially different, these markets perform the same economic function. They determine prices that ensure that the quantity people wish to buy equals the quantity people wish to sell. Price and quantity cannot be considered separately. In establishing that the price of a Rolls Royce is ten times the price of a small Ford, the market for motor cars ensures that production and sales of small Fords will greatly exceed the production and sales of Rolls Royces. These price guide society in choosing what, how, and for whom to purchase.

To understand this process more fully, we require a model of a typical market. The essential features on which such a model must concentrate are demand, the behaviour of  buyers, and supply, the behaviour of sellers. It will then be possible to study the interaction of these forces to see how a market works in practice.

1. Является ли утверждение  « Some markets like shops and fruit stalls and other markets like The London Stock Exchange perform the same economic function »

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

2. Является ли утверждение « Price and quantity can be considered as two separate parts of any market »

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

3. Найдите английские эквиваленты: исполнять одинаковые экономические функции; гарантировать;  превышать/превосходить; поведение продавцов/покупателей; комплекс договоренностей; устанавливать цену.

4. Ответьте на вопросы:

a) What is the market?

b) What for do we need the price?

c) Who chooses whether or not to make a purchase?

5. Сформулируйте главную мысль текста.

 

IV Вариант

The Role of the Market

A market is a shorthand expression for the process by which households' decisions about consumption of alternative go firms' decisions about what and how to produce, and workers' decision about how much and for whom to work an reconciled by adjustment of prices.

Prices of goods and of resources, such as labour, machinery and land, adjust to ensure that scarce resources are used to produce those goods and services that society demands.

Much of economics is devoted to the study of how markets and prices enable society to solve the problems of what, how, and for whom to produce. Suppose you buy a hamburger for your lunch. What does this have to do with markets and prices? You chose the cafe because it was fast, convenient and cheap. Given your desire to eat, and your limited resources, the low hamburger price told you that this was a good way to satisfy your appetite. You probably prefer steak but that is more expensive. The price of steak is high enough to ensure that society answers the "for whom" question about lunchtime steaks in favour of someone else.

Now think about the seller's viewpoint. The cafe owner is in the business because, given the price of hamburger meat, the rent and the wages that must be paid, it is still possible to sell hamburgers at a profit. If rents were higher, it might be more profitable to sell hamburgers in a cheaper area or to switch to luxury lunches for rich executives on expense accounts. The student behind the counter is working there because it is a suitable part-time job which pays a bit of money. If the wage were much lower it would hardly be worth working at all. Conversely, the job is unskilled and there are plenty of students looking for such work, so owners of cafes do not have to offer very high wages.

There were several markets involved in your purchase of a hamburger. You and the cafe owner were part of the market for lunches. The student behind the counter was part of the local labour market. The cafe owner was part of the local wholesale meat market and the local market for rented buildings. These descriptions of markets are not very precise. Were you part of the market for lunches, the market for prepared food, or the market for sandwiches to which you would have turned if hamburgers had been more expensive? That is why we have adopted a very general definition of markets which emphasized that they are arrangements through which prices influence the allocation of scarce resources.

1. Является ли утверждение  « It is very profitable to be the café owner»

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

2. Является ли утверждение « There are several factors through which prices influence the allocation of scarce resources »

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

3. Найдите английские эквиваленты: дефицитный товар; влиять на размещение/распределение; арендная плата; подходящая подработка; заработная плата; удовлетворить потребности; рынок труда.

4. Ответьте на вопросы:

a) What is the market?

b) What is the connection between goods, services that society demands?

c) Is it possible to sell hamburgers at a profit given the price of hamburger meat, the rent and the wages that must be paid?

5. Сформулируйте главную мысль текста.

 

V Вариант

What is economics?

It is difficult to give a full and accurate definition of economics, but it is possible to indicate what problems economists are interested in. They are factors that affect prices of goods and services and also resources necessary to produce them. Economists are also interested in sellers' and buyers' behaviour in the market, in the relationship between "price system" and "market mechanism".

Now economics is more complex. There are three main approaches to economics: microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics. There are also several specialized areas of study. Among them are money economics, international economics, labour economics, industrial economics, agricultural economics, growth economic, mathematical economics, etc.

Like many other sciences, economics uses models to understand economic problems. A model often helps an economist to make correct predictions. The economist usually follows several rules when he makes a model of economic behaviour.

First, real life is complex and it is not possible for an economist to include all the details in a model. So, a model is an abstraction from real life. A model usually includes only essential elements and relationships of a particular economic situation.

Second, if an economist has two different models of one phenomenon, he always chooses the model that predicts the results of a particular phenomenon more accurately.

Third, although models are helpful in economic analysis, an economist always studies the actual economic situation before he makes decisions.

It is not enough to make models, it is also necessary to collect and study actual data in order to know how accurate a model is.

1. Является ли утверждение  « It is impossible to give a full definition of economics, as well as to indicate what problems economists are interested in»

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

2. Является ли утверждение « The models in economics are used to solve the economic problems »

а) ложным

б) истинным

в) в тексте нет информации

3. Найдите английские эквиваленты: влиять на цены; фактические данные; определенная экономическая ситуация; поведение продавцов и покупателей; сделать верный прогноз; механизмы рынка; необходимые элементы.

4. Ответьте на вопросы:

a) Does the economics have a complex character nowadays?

b) What for do the economists create the models?

c) Is it possible to make the correct prediction?

5. Сформулируйте главную мысль текста.





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