БГТУ, английский язык (контрольные задания)
12.04.2018, 13:18

Контрольная работа 1

Вариант 1

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TEXT

SECTORS OF ECONOMY

There are three main sectors in any1 economy: the primary sector, the secondary sector, and the tertiary sector.

The primary sector of economy includes industries that get goods from nature, such as agriculture and mining. There are two main branches in agriculture: crop and animal farming. Mining partially belongs to the secondary sector as mineral resources need industrial processing. Forestry, fishing, and beekeeping also belong to this sector.

Manufacturing industries which produce goods by means of mechanical, electrical or chemical, but not manual, processing of resources belong to the secondary sector. People who do not produce goods but provide different services for plants and factories work for the secondary sector, for example plant and factory managers. The sector also includes companies that provide fuel, energy, and transport for manufacturing.

The tertiary sector provides different services to consumers, such as trade, transport, banking, insurance and other public services. Teachers, doctors, tourist agents, drivers, lawyers, etc2 work in the tertiary sector.

There are countries which are rich in land. They can use land intensively and produce agricultural products and minerals. Manufacturing plays an important role in the world economy, but there is a tendency for the growth of the service sector in many economies, especially in industrialized countries.

Пояснения к тексту

1) any – любой;

2) etc [it'setra] – и т.д., и т.п..

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What are the sectors of an economy?

2. What industries does the primary sector include?

3. Why does mining partially belong to the secondary sector?

4. How do manufacturing industries produce goods?

5. Do any services belong to the secondary sector?

6. What does the tertiary sector include?

7. What countries produce agricultural products and minerals?

8. Which sector grows in industrialized countries?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. Canals ... water for crop farming.

2. There is a tendency for ... of trade between the two countries.

3. ... is an important branch of economy ... it helps industry and agriculture to provide goods for consumers.

4. ... are people for whom all industries produce ... and ... .

5. They process minerals  chemical reactions.

6. ... belongs to the primary and to the secondary sectors.

7. The primary sector ... mining, agriculture, hunting, fishing, and beekeeping.

8. Countries that are rich in land ... agricultural products.

9. Crop farming and animal farming are branches of … .

Consumers, by means of, mining, trade, provide, produce, the growth, includes, as, agriculture, goods…services.

3. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. (The primary sector/The secondary sector) of economy includes industries that get goods from nature.

2. There are two main branches in (agriculture/industry): crop and animal farming.

3. Manufacturing industries produce goods by means of (mechanical/ manual) processing of resources.

4. Plant and factory managers work for (the tertiary/the secondary) sector of economy.

5. (The tertiary/The secondary )sector provides different services to consumers.

6. There is a tendency in industrialized countries for the growth of (the service sector/agricultural sector.

4. Сделайте следующие предложения утвердительными или отрицательными в зависимости от смысла, употребив глаголы в нужной форме.

1. Manufacturing industries (to be) important in all countries.

2. Agriculture (to include) crop and animal farming.

3. Mining (to belong) to the service sector.

4. Industries of the primary sector (to process) resources.

5. Fishing, forestry, and beekeeping (to be) industries of the secondary sector, they (to belong) to the primary sector.

6. Countries which (to be) rich in land (to produce) agricultural products.

7. Mining (to be) a very important industry in Russia.

8. Agriculture (to provide) goods for consumers and manufacturing.

9. In industrialized countries, the service sector (to grow) very fast.

5. Напишите к данному ниже предложению четыре вопроса: общий, специальный, альтернативный и разделительный.

The secondary sector includes companies that provide fuel, energy, and transport for manufacturing.

 

Контрольная работа 1

Вариант 2

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TEXT

WHAT IS ECONOMICS?

It is difficult to give a full and accurate definition of economics, but it is possible to indicate what problems economists are interested in. They are the factors that affect prices of goods and services and also resources necessary to produce them. Economists are also interested in sellers' and buyers' behaviour in the market, in the relationship between "price system" and "market mechanism".

Now economics is more complex. There are three main approaches to economics: microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics. There are also several specialized areas of study. Among them are money economics, international economics, labour economics, industrial economics, agricultural economics, growth economics, mathematical economics, etc.

Like many other sciences, economics uses models to understand economic problems. A model often helps an economist to make correct predictions. The economist usually follows several rules1 when he makes a model of economic behaviour.

First, real life is complex and it is not possible for an economist to include all the details in a model. So, a model is an abstraction from real life. A model usually includes only essential elements and relationships of a particular economic situation.

Second, if an economist has two different models of one phenomenon2, he always chooses the model that predicts the results of a particular phenomenon more accurately.

Third, although models are helpful in economic analysis, an economist always studies the actual economic situation before he makes decisions.

It is not enough to make models, it is also necessary to collect and study actual data in order to know how accurate a model is.

Пояснения к тексту

1) to follow rules – следовать правилам;

2) phenomenon – событие, явление.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What problems are economists interested in?

2. What are the three main approaches to economics?

3. What specialized areas of economics do you know?

4. Why do economists use economic models?

5. Why is it not possible to include all the details in a model?

6. What does a model usually include?

7. Which of the models does an economist always choose?

8. Why is it necessary for an economist to collect and study actual data?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. Trade ... well in this area.

2. It is necessary to have correct ... to make a correct decision.

3. He does not have ... money to ... a car.

4. Economists study the ... between prices of different goods in the ... .

5. The economist industrial economics.

6. The growth of industry and agriculture ... the life of all the people in the country.

Affects, data, relationship, market, develops, is interested in, enough, buy.

3. Переведите следующие словосочетания, образованные по схеме «существительное + существительное»:

Образец: market analysis – анализ рынка

Labour economics, labour market study, goods and services prices, growth economics problems, economic situation details, consumer behaviour, future prediction, growth mechanism, agriculture and manufacturing relationship, mineral resources prices, agricultural product price growth, area development, trade growth prediction.

4. Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы в нужной форме.

1. Economists (to study) situations from real life by means of economic models.

2. Economists (to be) interested in relationship between prices for goods and buyers' behaviour.

3. The buyer (to choose) goods for which he (to have) enough money.

4. He (not/ to follow) our recommendations.

5. The manager (to make) decisions only after careful analysis of all the data.

6. She always (to buy) a lot of clothes.

7. The data (not/ to be) necessary now.

8. The prices for fuel (to be) very high.

9. A consumer (to be) a person who (to buy) goods and services.

10. There (to be) several mining areas in this country.

5. Соедините части предложений А и В и переведите предложения на русский язык:

А.

1. Resources and labour are necessary

2. It is necessary to know marketing

3. It is not enough to study economic theory

4. Like other sciences, economics uses models

5. To buy goods and services it is necessary for a consumer

6. It is not always possible to predict

7. To have enough money for his

8. Development of trade

В.

a) is essential for economic growth of a country.

b) the results of every phenomenon.

c) to produce goods.

d) to sell goods and services well.

e) to have enough money.

f) to be a good economist.

g) family he works a lot.

h) to analyze real life situations.

 

Контрольная работа 2

Вариант 1

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TEXT

DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS

Development economics is an important branch of economics which considers specific problems of Third World countries. These countries are given a variety of different names such as "underdeveloped countries", "less developed countries" (LDCs), and "developing countries" (DCs). All these terms contrast third world countries with first world countries which are called "developed" or "industrialized". Economies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan belong to this type.

The growth of Third World countries was especially great in the 1950s and 1960s. Most of these countries were a part of the colonial system and they were controlled by Western Europe. Many countries got political independence after World War II, but they have not become independent economically yet. For example, India has been an independent country since 1945.

The most advanced Asian and South American countries are sometimes called "newly industrialized countries" (NICs). Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea have reached a great success in the development of their light manufacturing industries recently. They have already greatly increased the exports of such goods as shoes, clothes, and electronics all over the world. Brazil and Mexico have also increased their share in the world market mainly by means of foodstuffs exports.

It is important to understand that Third World countries are not uniform. Each country has its economic problems, and it is necessary for each country to develop its own policy in order to make progress.

However, developing countries are distinguished from developed nations by the following common characteristics: lower average income per capita1; low labour productivity; low level of education; high mortality rate2; fast population growth; low living standards, etc. Some developing countries have all of these characteristics; others have only some of them.

Пояснения к тексту

1) per capita – на душу населения;

2) mortality rate – уровень смертности.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What problems does development economics study?

2. How are Third World countries named?

3. What countries are known as "developed countries"?

4. When was the fastest growth of Third World countries?

5. Are developing countries independent politically or economically?

6. What countries belong to "newly industrialized countries"?

7. Are all developing countries uniform in their development?

8. What are the common characteristics of all developing countries?

2. Составьте предложения из каждого набора слов:

1. The company, exported, to European countries, before, its, never, has, goods.

2. Such a high level, the NICs, as now, reached, in trade, never, have.

3. Their goods, to Africa, yet, exported, they, have?

4. Have, new machines, we, the productivity, already, increased, of.

5. Reached, most African countries, the living standards, have not, yet, of developed countries.

6. The European Union, Lithuania, a member of, recently, has become.

3. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. Brazil has recently increased the exports of ..., one of which is coffee.

2. As the education of … is not very good in developing countries, the … is low.

3. There is a wide … of problems which Third world countries have in their economics, but economic … is common for most of them.

4. This factory uses the most … technologies in processing agricultural products into foodstuffs.

5. He has been interested in the problems of development economics … he started work there.

6. Less developed countries are … from each other by means of analysis of their … income … capita.

7. Developing countries got political … more than 50 years ago, but they have not … a high level of living standards of developed countries.

8. Newly industrialized countries have … the productivity of light manufacturing industry … .

9. The development of different areas of the economy is not … . Some areas are more developed, others are less developed.

Labour productivity, uniform, since, foodstuffs, advanced, independence, variety, population, per, increased, distinguished, lately, average, reached, dependence.

4. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. Economies of Western Europe, North America, and Japan are (developing/developed) economies.

2. Third World countries are called (developing/developed) countries.

3. The most advanced Asian and South American countries are sometimes called ("newly industrialized countries"/"less developed countries").

4. Many countries became politically (dependent/independent) after World War II.

5. Brazil and Mexico have also increased their share in the world market mainly by means of (foodstuffs/clothes) exports.

6. (Developed/developing) nations have high mortality rate and fast population growth.

5. Выберите из текста 7 ключевых предложений, которые послужили бы основой для пересказа.

 

Контрольная работа 2

Вариант 2

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TEXT

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Agricultural economics has been one of the leading branches of applied economics since the 1920s. Now it is developing rapidlу and successfully as it is important for most countries of the world.

In order to understand agricultural economics it is necessary to know how crops are sown, cultivated, fertilized, and harvested, how livestock are bred, raised, fattened, and sold.

One of the main characteristics of agricultural sector is its great dependence on natural conditions, such as climate, weather, soil, etc. For example, there are differences between farms growing crops or fattening cattle in the central part of Russia and in its southern regions, as well as between farms growing wheat in the Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Farms of the same type working under different natural conditions use different livestock breeds, crop varieties, harvesting machinery, etc.

In developed countries the productivity in agricultural sector including agriculture and processing of agricultural products is being raised as fast as in economy as a whole. The main reasons for rising efficiency are: a) better agricultural technology; b) better capital inputs1, such as machinery; c) achievements in biological sciences.

However, there are two main factors limiting further rise in efficiency: increasing energy scarcity as well as the loss of topsoil2 and water.

Unlike incomes in most industries, farm incomes vary from year to year. They depend on weather conditions and changes in demand for and supply of most farm products.

All these problems are considered by agricultural economics.

Пояснения к тексту

1) capital inputs – капиталовложения;

2) topsoil – верхний слой почвы.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. Why is agricultural economics developing rapidly?

2. What is it necessary to know to understand agricultural economics?

3. What is the main characteristic of agriculture?

4. Why do farms of the same type in different regions use different livestock breeds, crop varieties and machinery?

5. What are the main reasons for rising efficiency in agriculture in the developed countries?

6. What are the factors limiting further rise in productivity in agriculture?

7. Why do farm incomes vary from year to year?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. Macroeconomics analyzes economy ... .

2. Tourism develops more ... and ... in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe.

3. We don't know the ... for the manager's decision to ... two more workers.

4. Coca-Cola is one of the ... producers of soft drinks  Its main ... is Pepsi-Cola. However, I don't see any... between drinks produced by them.

5. The manager doesn't ... with the task of introducing the new product to the market.

6. The crop did not grow well last year as the weather ... were not proper for it.

7. ... rice, wheat does not require warm climate conditions.

8. As ... grows prices become lower.

9. The ... of dependence of agriculture on is higher than that of other industries.

To engage, competitor, as a whole, condition (2), to cope, difference, supply, leading, rapidly, reason, unlike, successfully, degree, natural.

3. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. (Some/The same) regions lead in manufacturing, (some/the same) lead in agriculture.

2. Conditions in southern regions are not (some/the same) as in northern regions.

3. The reasons for energy scarcity are not (some/the same) as the reasons for water scarcity.

4. In (some/the same) countries living standards have risen in the last decade, in (some/the same) countries they are (some/the same) as they were ten years ago, in (some/the same) countries they have become worse.

5. This farm raises (some/the same) breeds of livestock as most farms of the region.

6. (Some/The same) livestock breeds are more rapidly growing than others.

4. Вставьте в предложения подходящие по смыслу слова из предложенных групп однокоренных слов: differ, different, difference; to vary, various, variety; efficient, efficiently, efficiency.

1. The enterprise is working ... .

2. There is a ... of reasons for high unemployment in this region.

3. Prices of the same agricultural products ... from region to region.

4. There is not any ... between these two methods, only the names ... .

5. These two economists are interested in ... fields of economics.

6. They have raised ... of their work by means of new machi­nery.

5. Напишите к данному ниже предложению четыре вопроса: общий, специальный, альтернативный и разделительный.

Agricultural economics is developing rapidly and successfully now.

 

Контрольная работа 3

Вариант 1

Переведите текст.

TEXT

ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION

Education for young people has always been a leading social task. In all industrial societies young people from the age of 5 to 16 and sometimes older go to school. A lot of young adults then take jobs, but some – like you – go to college and a few more take advanced studies.

Education varies from country to country but it has the same economic characteristics in all countries. It improves skills which make people more productive. By means of education people are made stable members of society. Some teachers also do creative research which helps to improve technology. So education creates large economic values varying from technical productivity in factories and offices to progress of knowledge.

Various values of education are of two classes: private and social. Each student gets private benefits when he or she learns new skills which will allow them to get higher pay on the job. Besides, the job will probably be more pleasant and the person will cope with problems of modern life better.

There are also public benefits of education. First, it provides more productive workers for society, economy becomes more efficient and profitable. Without education many people do not cope with difficulties of life and turn to crime1 or require public support. Second, people understand social life better and they will deal with public problems more intelligently and avoid extremism. Third, greater productivity of population provides more taxes in order to pay for public needs.

The task of economics of education is to evaluate public and private benefits and make decisions how much a government is going to invest in every type of school and how the government is going to do it. As productivity and stability of population is mainly increased at school level, total public subsidies for schools are justified. For education at the college level, however, the public benefits are weaker than private benefits and full public subsidies are considered less justified than at the school level.

Education is being financed by subsidies or scholarships. Which of them are more effective is also a problem studied by economics of education.

Technologies are becoming more complex and demand for education as well as a number of qualified specialists will grow in future. With it, the role of economics of education and the scope of problems studied by it is growing in the years to come2.

Пояснения к тексту

1) turn to crime – зд. преступают закон, делаются преступниками;

2) in the years to come – зд. в последующие годы.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What are the characteristics of education which are the same in all countries?

2. What is the role of education in social progress?

3. What are the private benefits of education?

4. What are the public benefits of education?

5. What is the task of economics of education?

6. Why are total subsidies for schools justified? What about subsidies for colleges?

7. How is education financed?

8. Is economics of education going to become more important in the near future? Why?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. A lot of university students get … . …, most of them work.

2. The growth of trade between the two countries is ... .

3. What are the ... of the job?

4. ... of society is very important for fast economic growth.

5. I want to have a good ..., ... I chose economics as my profession.

6. There are ...jobs on the labour market.

7. Not every man will cope with ... work.

8. The ... of this course is to improve your reading and speaking ... in English.

9. Their task is ... any risk for their company.

Skill, creative, so, benefit, besides, task, scholarship, stable, stability, various, job, avoid.

3. Замените слова в скобках на английский эквивалент.

1. Stability of society depends on the level of education and (очень многих) other factors.

2. There are not (так много) risks in manufacturing as in agriculture.

3. (Очень мало) countries in the world have very high living standards.

4. It is necessary to evaluate (много) factors in order to predict what will happen in future.

5. There are (меньше) buyers today than yesterday.

6. The bank has introduced (мало) new services recently.

7. It is necessary to learn (много) to have (так много) knowledge.

8. When the University had some financial difficulties, it got (мало) support from the company.

4. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями:

1. Education doesn’t vary from country to country.

2. By means of education people are made stable members of society.

3. Each student gets social benefits when he or she learns new skills which will allow them to get higher pay on the job.

4. People understand social life better and they will deal with private problems more intelligently and avoid extremism.

5. Education is being financed by subsidies or scholarships.

6. Demand for education as well as a number of qualified specialists will fall in future.

5. Выберите из текста 7 ключевых предложений, которые послужили бы основой для пересказа.

 

Контрольная работа 3

Вариант 2

Переведите текст.

TEXT

INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS

International economics is a branch of economics including international trade and international finance.

International trade is a study of the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. It has existed for ages, for example Silk Road1 and Amber Road2. However, its importance has greatly increased recently as a result of advanced transportation, globalization and facilities of transnational corporations. The increase in international trade is the main aim of globalization.

Traditionally trade was regulated through bilateral treaties signed between two nations. For centuries most nations had high tariffs and many restrictions on international trade. However, after World War 11 a number of multilateral treaties were able to create a globally regulated trade structure. Nowadays the regulation of international trade is done through the World Trade Organization (the WTO) at the global level and through other regional organizations such as the NAFTA3 between the United States, Canada and Mexico, and the European Union with its 27 member-countries.

Free trade is most strongly supported by economically powerful nations but they may often follow the policy of selective protectionism4. There is sometimes strong domestic pressure to increase tariffs that can protect domestic industries. For example, the protective tariffs have been applied to agriculture and textiles by the United States and Europe. Today the greatest supporters of free trade are the US, Australia and Japan. Moreover, some other countries such as India, China and Russia are becoming more economically powerful and they also begin to support free trade.

International finance as a branch of economics studies exchange rates of currencies and foreign investment, and how these can affect international trade. In finance, the foreign exchange rate between two currencies shows how much one currency is worth in terms of the other5. The foreign exchange market is one of the largest markets in the world. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is investment made to get control over a foreign affiliate. The FDI relationship consists of a parent6 enterprise and a foreign affiliate which together form a transnational corporation.

Пояснения к тексту

1) Silk Road – Шелковый путь;

2) Amber Road – Янтарный путь;

3) NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement – Североамериканское соглашение о свободе торговли (НАФТА);

4) selective protectionism – избирательный протекционизм (политика государства, направленная на поддержку конкретных национальных производителей и их защиту от иностранной конкуренции);

5) is worth in terms of the other – стоит в переводе на другую (валюту);

6) parent (enterprise/company) – материнская компания (компания, контролирующая одну или несколько дочерних компании через контрольный пакет акции; в отличие от чисто холдинговой компании, сама осуществляет конкретную производственную деятельность).

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What problems does international economics deal with?

2. How long has trade between nations existed?

3. Why has the importance of international trade changed in recent decades?

4. How can nations influence trade relations?

5. Which international organizations help to promote trade between countries?

6. How can countries protect their domestic producers?

7. How can transnational corporations be formed?

8. Which countries are playing the most important role in the world market now?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. … … requires exchange of money of one currency into another and … … of different currencies are published in newspapers and in the Internet.

1. Without … … the rate of … … exchange will depend on the competitive position of the two countries in world markets, however many developing countries may periodically ... foreign exchange rates.

2. Efficient methods of ... , that is movement of people and goods from one place to another, may greatly influence the economic prosperity of a nation.

3. … … are companies having ... all over the world and functioning in a global market.

4. Russian companies have signed … … … trade agreements on exporting oil to the Western European countries ... the oil-pipe-line which will be built at the bottom of the Black Sea.

5. The People's Republic of China following its own independent economic ... is becoming one of the most ... nations in the world.

6. The United States and Japan signed a … … that allowed the US to leave military bases in Japan.

7. Japan has a 490 percent tariff on foreign rice imports to ... its... rice farmers.

8. Microsoft Corporation, the largest world company creating computer software, ... of the headquarters located in Redmond, Washington, and ... in more than 60 countries.

Affiliates (2), policy, transportation, through, domestic, to consist, powerful, to regulate, to protect, bilateral treaty, international trade, exchange rates, transnational corporations, foreign currency, government restrictions, a number of

3. Образуйте от следующих существительных прилагательные и наречия. Дайте русские эквиваленты этих слов.

Образец: financefinancialfinancially – финансы – финансовый – с финансовой точки зрения

Economy, nation, tradition, globe, region, strength, power, industry, environment, agriculture, policy, difference, benefit, culture.

4. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. The Washington Post is one of the most effective and (natio­nal/nationally) respected daily newspapers in the United States.

2. The lawyer (strongly/strong) recommended the company director not to sign the new agreement because it was only (beneficial/beneficially) to the foreign partner.

3. The term "globalization" is used to describe the (global/ globally) society in which (economically/economic), (political/politically), (environmental/environmentally), and (culturally/cultural) achievements in one part of the world quickly become important for people in other parts of the world.

4. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom were both (strongly/strong) advocates of free trade when they were (economical/economically) dominant in the 19th century.

5. Opponents of the WTO say that the organization is too (powerful/powerfully) because it considers its own rules more important than the laws of sovereign nations.

6. (Traditional/Traditionally) (agriculturally/agricultural) interests were more often in favour of (freely/free) trade while manufacturing sectors often supported protectionism.

7. Such (industrially/industrial) advanced country as France is the third largest country in Europe, after Russia and Ukraine.

8. Nowadays English is becoming an international language of communication but people speak it (different/differently) and sometimes with a (regionally/regional) accent.

9. In the late 1970s a lot of rules of economic activity were weakened and it allowed European companies and firms to function more (freely/free) within the European Union.

5. Соедините части предложений А и В и переведите предложения на русский язык:

А.

1. A number of factors including over-population, over-use of natural resources as well as intensive farming may lead to

2. Economists can classify goods

3. For some countries it is more beneficial to specialize in those goods which they can produce

4. In the 17th and 18th centuries the heads of nation-states discovered that by means of foreign trade they could make

5. International trade leads to more efficient and higher world production, so a nation having limited natural resources is able

6. In the 20th century national governments in Eastern European countries could

7. If a country becomes a member of the WTO, it will be able

8. The world's industrialized countries were not able

В.

a) to protect intellectual property rights (авторские права) of its citizens.

b) to avoid the influence of the Great Depression which began in the US in 1929 because by that time they were economically dependent on one another.

c) their nations more powerful economically and militarily.

d) as finished products, as intermediate goods used in producing other goods, or as agricultural products and foodstuffs.

e) largely limit imports through tariffs and quotas.

f) more cheaply than their trading partners.

g) to produce and consume more.

h) global environmental crisis.

 

Контрольная работа 4

Вариант 1

Переведите текст.

TEXT

THE EUROPEAN UNION

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states, located in Europe. It was established by the Treaty of Maastricht1 on November 1st in 1993, on the basis of the former European Economic Community. With almost 500 million citizens, the share of the EU in the nominal gross world product2 is about 30%, which was $ 18.4 trillion in 2008.

The EU has developed a single market through a standard system of laws which apply in all member states, guaranteeing the freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital. It maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the euro. It has developed a limited role in foreign policy, having representation at the World Trade Organization, The Group of Eight (G8) forums, and at the United Nations. Twenty-one EU countries are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The EU has developed a role in justice and home affairs, including the abolition of passport controls between many member states which form part of the Schengen Area, which also includes some associated European non-EU countries.

The EU operates through a system which takes into account both common union and national country's interests. It means that in certain areas the EU depends upon agreement between the member states. However, some decisions can be made by a country's government without any special agreements between all national governments. Important institutions and offices of the EU include the European Commission, the European parliament, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the European Court of Justice and the European Central Bank. EU citizens elect the Parliament every five years.

Пояснения к тексту

1) the Treaty of Maastricht – Маастрихтский договор (договор об образовании Европейского Союза, подписанный 7 февраля 1992 г. и вступивший в силу в 1993 г.);

2) gross product – валовой продукт.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What is The European Union?

2. How and when was it established?

3. What does a single market of the EU guarantee?

4. What common currency was adopted by the EU member states?

5. What advantages does membership in the Schengen Area give?

6. What basis does the EU operate on? What does it mean?

7. What institutions and offices does the EU include?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. The EU … itself as "a family of democratic European countries".

2. Some EU member states have a domestic tradition of strong regional … .

3. Many of the … of the EU relate to the development and maintenance of an effective … market.

4. The EU economy is expected … further over the next decade as more countries join the union.

5. The Schengen treaty allowed removal of … border controls and harmonization of … controls between its member states.

6. Freedom is provided for citizens of its member states … and … anywhere within the EU with their spouses and children.

7. The European Union's … cover all areas of public policy, from health and economic policy to foreign affairs and defense.

To live, policies, internal, describes, activities, to grow, single, external, work, government.

3. Подберите словарные определения к следующим организациям: WTO, G8, UN, NATO, Schengen Area.

a) is a military alliance established on 4 April 1949, the headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and the organization provides a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party;

b) is a group of twenty-five European countries which have abolished all border controls between each other; it originates from the agreement signed.in 1985;

c) is a forum, created by France in 1975, for governments of eight nations of the northern hemisphere: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK, and the USA;

d) is an international organization whose main aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights and achieving world peace founded in 1945 after World War II;

e) is an important selective, mainly private, international organization aimed at controlling and liberalizing international trade; officially established on 1 January 1995.

4. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями:

1. The European Union is an economic and cultural  union of 27 member states, located in Europe.

2. The EU maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.

3. Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the euro.

4. All EU countries are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

5. Schengen Area doesn’t include any non-EU countries.

6. In certain areas the EU depends upon agreement between the member states.

7. EU citizens elect the Parliament every four years.

5. Напишите к данному ниже предложению четыре вопроса: общий, специальный, альтернативный и разделительный.

The European Union was established by the Treaty of Maastricht on November 1st in 1993.

 

Контрольная работа 4

Вариант 2

Переведите текст.

TEXT

LANGUAGES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

Among many languages and dialects used in the EU, it has 23 official and working languages: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish. All important documents, such as legislation1, are translated into every official language. The European Parliament provides translation into all languages for documents and its plenary sessions. Some institutions use only a few languages as internal working languages. Language policy is the responsibility of member states, but EU institutions promote2 the learning of other languages.

German is the most widely spoken mother tongue and there are about 18% of native speakers, that is, 88.7 million people, living in the European Union. German is followed by English (13%), Italian (13%) and French (12%). However, nowadays English is the most widely spoken foreign language of over half (51%) the population, while German is spoken by 32% and French by 26% population. Moreover, it has been found that 56% of European citizens are able to speak a language other than their mother tongue. Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, except Estonian, Finnish, and Hungarian, and Maltese. Most EU official languages are written in the Latin alphabet except Bulgarian, written in Cyrillic, and Greek, written in the Greek alphabet.

Besides the 23 official languages, there are about 150 regional and minority languages, spoken by up to 50 million people. Of these, only the Spanish regional languages (Catalan/Valencian, Basque and Galician), Scottish Gaelic and Welsh can be used by citizens in communication with the main European institutions. Although EU programmes can support regional and minority languages, the protection of linguistic rights is provided by the individual member states.

Пояснения к тексту

1) legislation – законодательство, законопроект;

2) to promote – способствовать, содействовать.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. How many languages used in the EU are considered to be official and working languages?

2. Whose responsibility is language policy?

3. What is the most widely spoken mother tongue in the EU?

4. What is the status of the English language in the EU?

5. What language family do most official languages of the EU belong to?

6. What alphabet are most EU official languages written in?

7. What other languages are there in the EU besides the 23 official languages?

2. Заполните пропуски, используя слова под чертой (слова даны в нужной форме):

1. Everyone in the European Parliament is entitled … in their own native language and to have this … into other languages.

2. The European Parliament … over 4000 interpreters at a cost of almost one billion … .

3. One of the problems is that sometimes translating needs to be done across … languages, due to a lack of … between certain languages (e.g. Greek-Danish, Portuguese-Greek).

4. Besides many regional languages, a broad variety of languages from other parts of the world are spoken by … communities in the member states.

5. Turkish, Russian, Urdu, Bengali, Hindi, Tamil, Ukrainian, Punjabi and Balkan … are spoken in many parts of the EU.

6. Migrant languages have no formal … or recognition in the EU or in the EU countries.

Interpreted, immigrant, intermediate, to communicate, employs, interpreters, euros, status, languages.

3. Отметьте утверждения, которые не соответствуют содер­жанию текста.

1. There are 23 member-countries in the European Union and the same number of languages is spoken on its territory.

2. It is strictly banned to speak any other foreign languages except officially recognized languages.

3. The number of people speaking minority languages is not as large as the number of people speaking official languages.

4. Only five regional languages can be used by European Union citizens in dealing with the main European organizations.

5. All the documents don't have to be translated into 23 official languages.

6. Although English is the most popular language it is spoken by less than a half of population in the European Union.

7. Widely spoken official languages of the European Union belong to the same language family.

4. Укажите названия стран, в которых говорят на нижеперечисленных языках.

Образец: Bulgarian – Bulgaria

Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.

5. Выберите из текста 7 ключевых предложений, которые послужили бы основой для пересказа.

Английский язык: методические указания к выполнению контрольных заданий для студентов 1 курса заочной формы обучения экономических специальностей. – Брянск: БГТУ, 2012. – 27 с.





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