БГТУ, английский язык (контрольные задания, 2 курс)
01.11.2018, 20:05

Контрольная работа 1

Вариант 1

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TEXT

Market and Command Economies

Economics is a science that analyses what, how, and for whom society produces. The central economic problem is to reconcile the conflict between people's unlimited demands with society's ability to produce goods and services.

In industrial Western countries markets are to allocate resources. The market is the process by which production and consumption are coordinated through prices.

In a command economy1, a central planning office makes decisions on what, how, and for whom to produce. Economy cannot rely entirely on command, but there was extensive planning in many Soviet bloc countries.

A free market economy has no government intervention. Resources are allocated entirely through markets.

Modern economies in the West are mixed and rely mainly on the market but with a large dose of government intervention2. The optimal level of government intervention remains a problem which is of interest to economists.

The degree of government restrictions differs greatly between countries that have command economics and countries that have free market economies. In the former, resources are allocated by central government planning. In the latter, there is not any government regulation of the consumption, production, and exchange of goods. Between the two main types lies the mixed economy where market and government are both of importance3.

Пояснения к тексту

1) command economy – централизованно управляемая экономика; нерыночная экономика;

2) government intervention – государственное вмешательство;

3) to be of importance – быть важным, иметь (большое) значение.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What is the central economic problem of a society?

2. What is the market?

3. What is the function of the market in an industrial country?

4. How are decisions made in a command economy?

5. In what way does a free market economy differ from a command economy?

6. To which type do most economies in the West belong?

2. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. (A command economy / a free market economy) is a society where the government makes all decisions about production and consumption.

2. (Economics/ Economy) studies how markets and prices allow society to solve the problems of what, how, and for whom to produce.

3. Every economist sees (the restriction / the importance) of the question of what, how, and for whom to produce.

4. Nations have different (consumption / levels) of farm production.

5. When (the price / the importance) of some goods grows, people will try to use less of them but producers will want to produce more of them.

6. In (mixed/both) countries, Canada and the USA, structural changes in the agricultural sector of economy have become of interest to economists and general public in the 80s and 90s of the 20th century.

7. After years of competition between command and market economies, (the former / the latter) gave way in many countries of the world to (the former/ the latter).

3. Измените следующие фразы, используя прилагательные economic или economical:

1. A crisis in the field of economy.

2. To be careful in the spending of money.

3. Reforms in the field of economy.

4. A law (закон) regulating the sphere of economics.

5. A plan of the industrial development of the country.

6. A small car that doesn't use too much fuel.

7. Geography that studies the location (размещение) of industries, markets, transport.

4. Вставьте в предложения слова: economy, economics, economist, economic, to economise, economical.

1. An early definition (определение) of ... was "an inquiry (изучение) into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations".

2. The national ... is the system of the management and use of resources of a country.

3. You can ... if you compare the prices of goods before buying them.

4. J. M. Keynes was a famous ... .

5. Inflation may cause a bad ... state (положение) in a country.

6. If you've got a large family, it's more ... to travel by car than by train.

5. Напишите к данному ниже предложению четыре вопроса: общий, специальный, альтернативный и разделительный.

 The market is the process by which production and consumption are coordinated through prices.

 

Контрольная работа 1

Вариант 2

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TEXT

Demand and Supply

Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at each price1. Other things equal2, at low prices the demanded quantity is higher.

Supply is the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at each price. Other things equal, when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.

The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage) raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply (surplus) reducing the price.

There are some factors influencing demand for a good, such as the prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others.

An increase in the price of a substitute good3 (or a decrease in the price of a complement good4) will at the same time raise the demanded quantity.

As consumer income is increased, demand for a normal good will also increase but demand for an inferior good will decrease. A normal good is a good for which demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior good is a good for which demand falls when incomes rise.

As to supply, some factors are assumed5 as constant. Among them are technology, the input price6, as well as degree of government regulation. An improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity of a good as a reduction in input prices.

Government regulates demand and supply, imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.

Пояснения к тексту

1) each price – зд. любая цена;

2) other things equal – при прочих равных условиях;

3) substitute good – товар-заменитель (спрос на который изменяется в противоположном направлении по сравнению со спросом на другой товар, цена на который изменилась);

4) complement good – товар-дополнение (спрос на который изменяется в том же направлении, что и спрос на некоторые другие товары, цены на которые изменились);

5) to be assumed – рассматриваться, приниматься;

6) input price – цена ресурсов, цена основных средств производства.

1.  Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What is demand?

2. What is supply?

3. When is the market in equilibrium?

4. What happens when the prices are not so high as eqiulibrium price or above the equilibrium price?

5. Which factors influence demand?

6. Which factors influence supply?

7. How can governments regulate demand and supply?

2. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов.

1. The fashion for miniskirt (increased/reduced) the demand for textile materials.

2. Even in (some/the same) middle-income countries many people are very poor.

3. Government regulations sometimes (decrease / impose) a change in (technology /quantity) that producers do not want to use.

4. Stabilization of prices is of great importance to industrial nations (as well as/as well) the Third World countries.

5. (Inferior/ Normal) goods are usually low-quality goods for which there are higher-quality (improvements/substitutes) sold at higher prices.

6. Freeing up (освобождение) prices leads to their (decrease/increase).

7. A decrease in (complement/ input) prices makes the production less expensive.

3. Выберите из приведенных ниже слов пары однокоренных глаголов и существительных и переведите их на русский язык.

To fall, consumer, to stabilize, organization, demand, to sell, buyer, influence, to invest, to improve, consumption, fall, improvement, stabilization, to intervene, to organize, investment, seller, to consume, to buy, to demand, increase, to reduce, reduction, to influence, to increase, intervention.

4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на слова some и the same.

1. At some price, which we call the "equilibrium price", the demanded quantity of a good equals the supplied quantity.

2. All markets have the same economic function: they form prices equalling the quantities of goods that people wish to buy or to sell.

3. There has been some rise of income in the past two decades (десятилетия) in developing countries.

4. A less developed country is the same as a country of the Third World.

5. An association is an organization formed by the people having the same interests and held together by a system of management.

6. For the next twenty years the supply of energy will be limited in some sectors of the US economy.

7. An improvement in technology is something that makes it possible for firms to produce more goods with the same quantity of inputs as before.

5. Вставьте в предложения следующие прилагательные, образуя соответствующую форму степени сравнения:

Low, important, much, large, many.

1. Command economy relies ... on planning than on prices.

2. Knowledge of foreign languages is now … than it was some 40 years ago.

3. The degree of government regulation in present-day Russia is ... than in the Soviet Union.

4. In the 18th century the ... part of national income in ... European countries came from import and export tariffs.

 

Контрольная работа 2

Вариант 1

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TEXT

Inflation

Inflation is a steady rise in the average price and wage level. If the rise in wages is high enough to raise costs of production, prices grow further resulting in a higher rate of inflation and, finally, in an inflationary spiral1. Periods when inflation rates are very large are referred to as2 hyperinflation.

The causes of inflation are rather complicated, and there is a number of theories explaining them. Monetarists, such as Milton Friedman, say that inflation is caused by too rapid increase in money supply and the corresponding excess demand for goods.

Therefore, monetarists consider due government control of money supply to be able to restrict inflation rates. They also believe the high rate of unemployment to be likely to restrain claims for higher wages. People having jobs accept the wages they are being paid, and the inflationary spiral is kept under control. This situation also accounts for rather slow increase in aggregate demand.

On the other hand, Keynesians, that is, economists following the theory of John M. Keynes, suppose inflation to be due to processes occurring in money circulation. They say that low inflation and unemployment rates can be ensured by adopting a tight incomes policy.

Incomes policies3, though, monetarists argue, may temporarily speed up the transition to a lower inflation rate but they are unlikely to succeed in the long run4.

The costs of inflation depend on whether it was anticipated and on the extent to which the economy's institutions allow complete inflation adjustment.

Пояснения к тексту

1) inflationary spiral – инфляционная спираль (ситуация, когда темп инфляции постоянно и быстро повышается);

2) to be referred to as – называться;

3) incomes policy – политика доходов (ставит своей целью контроль над инфляцией путем сдерживания прироста зарплаты и цен).

4) in the long runв долгосрочный период, т.е. достаточно длительный для того, чтобы фирма могла изменить все факторы производства;

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What situation is described as an inflationary spiral?

2. What are periods when inflation rates are very large referred to?

3. Which two schools of thought are mentioned in the text?

4. What do monetarists think to be effective in restricting inflation rates?

5. What processes do Keynesians suppose inflation to be due to?

6. What do the costs of inflation depend on?

2. Выберите подходящее по смыслу слово из предлагаемых в скобках вариантов. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Pensions and other social payments are raised every year by the rate corresponding to the rate of (any/anticipated) inflation.

2. Taxing the rich and transferring the funds to the poor, the government (adjusts/ ensures) that the poor get more of what is produced.

3. The quantity theory of money (argues/means) that changes in prices (occur/are caused) mainly by equivalent changes in money supply.

4. In practice the distinction between land and capital is (though /rather) uncertain.

5. The output of new ideas depends to a large (extent/ number) on the resources allocated for them.

3. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста.

1. Inflation is a steady fall in the average price and wage level.

2. Monetarists consider due government control of money supply to be able to restrict inflation rates.

3. The costs of inflation depend on whether it was anticipated.

4. Keynesians are economists following the theory of Adam Smith.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значение слова any.

1. Producing output, any firm uses the cheapest available technique (технология).

2. If a company is in trouble, it will be happy to borrow at almost any interest rate the banks charge (назначать).

3. Some unemployment is expected to occur at any time, even when the economic growth in the country is steady.

4. There are not any substitutes for everything, so people cannot avoid high-priced goods by means of buying something else.

5. Выберите из текста 6 ключевых предложений, которые послужили бы основой для пересказа.

 

Контрольная работа 2

Вариант 2

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TEXT

Changes in consumer demand

Increases or decreases in demand are changes in the quantities that would be bought at any of the possible array of prices. Changes in demand are shifts or movements of the entire demand curve. A shift to the right means an increase in demand. It can come from any one or a combination of the following: a change in consumer desire or taste, sometimes augmented by volumes of advertising; a rise in consumers income; a rise in the prices of substitutes; or a fall in the prices of complements. Of course, opposite changes in these factors cause a decrease in demand, i.e. a leftward shift of the entire demand curve. An exception here applies to inferior goods1, which are defined as those goods and services bought in smaller amounts as consumer incomes rise.

In an uncertain economy, especially an inflationary one, price expectation can affect demand. For storable commodities2, when consumers believe that expected future prices will be higher, buyers tend to increase their current demand and thus tend to make their expectations self-fulfilling3.

The demands for durable goods4 can fluctuate widely over time, as consumers' incomes vary. A durable good has both a stock demand5 and a flow demand6. The stock demand is for the amount that consumers want to hold over a period of years. The flow demand in a given year consists of replacement demand7, i.e.8, for purchases to maintain the stock at some level, and of expansion demand, i.e., for purchases to increase the stock.

Пояснения к тексту

1) inferior goods – товары низкого качества;

2) storable commodities – то вары длительного хранения;

3) self-fulfilling – самовыполняющиеся;

4) durable goods – товары длительного пользования;

5) stock demand – биржевой спрос;

6) flow demand – текущий спрос;

7) replacement demand – спрос, обусловленный необходимостью возмещения;

8) i.e. – то есть, сокр. от id est (союз, лат). Полный графический английский вариант that is.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What are increases or decreases in demand?

2. What does the shift to the right of the demand curve mean?

3. What are possible causes of the process?

4. What does the shift to the left of the demand curve mean?

5. How does price expectation affect demand?

6. What is said about demand fluctuations?

2. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словосочетаниям.

1. Array of prices.

2. Increase in demand.

3. A fall in the prices of complements.

4. Price expectation.

5. Current demand.

6. Replacement demand.

3. Укажите, какие утверждения не соответствуют содержанию текста и исправьте их.

1. Increases or decreases in demand are changes in the quantities that would be bought at any of the possible array of prices.

2. A shift to the right means a fall in demand.

3. A decrease in demand is a leftward shift of the entire demand curve.

4. The demand for durable goods remains stable over time.

4. Заполните пропуски предлогами.

1. Changes ... demand are shifts or movements ... the entire demand curve.

2. Inferior goods are those goods and services bought ... smaller amounts as consumer incomes rise.

3. ... an uncertain economy, especially an inflationary one, price expectation can affect demand.

4. The stock demand is ... the amount that consumers want to hold ... a period ... years.

5. Найдите в тексте определения следующих понятий.

1. Increases or decreases in demand.

2. Changes in demand.

3. A shift to the right.

4. A leftward shift of the entire demand curve.

5. Inferior goods.

 

Контрольная работа 3

Вариант 1

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TEXT

Monopoly

Monopoly is a market structure with only a single seller of a commodity or service dealing with a large number of buyers. When a single seller faces a single buyer, that situation is known as bilateral monopoly1.

The most important features of market structure are those, which influence the nature of competition and price determination. The key element in this segment of market organization is the degree of seller concentration, or the number and size distributions of the sellers. There is monopoly when there is only one seller in an industry, and there is competition when there are many sellers in an industry. In cases of an intermediate number of sellers, that is, something between monopoly and competition, there can be two sellers (duopoly), a few sellers (oligopoly), or many sellers (atomistic competition).

Today the term monopoly is usually extended to include any group of firms, which act together to fix prices or levels of production. Complete control of all output is not necessary to exercise monopoly power. Any combination of firms, which controls at least 80 percent of an industry's production, can dictate the prices of the remaining 20 percent.

Aside from2 private monopolies, there are public monopolies. One example of a public monopoly in the United States is the nonprofit3 postal service. There is also the «natural» monopoly4, which exists when it is more efficient, technically, to have a single seller.

Although the precise definition of monopoly – a market structure with only a single seller of a commodity or service – cannot be applied directly to a labor union because a union is not a seller of services, labor unions have monopolistic characteristics. In effect, the price of labor (wages) is set without regard to5 the available supply of labor.

Пояснения к тексту

1) bilateral monopoly – двусторонняя монополия;

2) aside from – помимо;

3) nonprofit – некоммерческий;

4) «natural» monopoly – естественная монополия;

5) without regard to – без учета.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What is a monopoly, duopoly, oligopoly, atomistic competition?

2. What is a bilateral monopoly?

3. What is the key element in the segment of competition and price determination?

4. Is full control necessary for the monopoly?

5. What is an example of a public monopoly?

6. When does a «natural» monopoly exist?

2. Укажите, какие утверждения не соответствуют содержанию текста и исправьте их.

A. When two buyers meet two sellers it is called bilateral monopoly.

B. The degree of sellers concentration is the number and size distributions of monopolists.

C. Any group of firms which act together to fix prices or levels of production is a monopoly.

D. The price of labor (wages) is set with regard to the available supply of labor.

3. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словосочетаниям.

1) market structure;

2) segment of market;

3) public monopoly;

4) atomistic competition;

5) levels of production;

6) labor unions.

4. Заполните пропуски предлогами.

1. Monopoly is a market structure … only a single seller ... a commodity or service dealing ... a large number ...buyers.

2. The key element … this segment ... market organization is the degree … seller concentration.

3. … private monopolies, there are public monopolies.

4. Monopoly is the exact antithesis ... competition.

5. The use ... monopoly power may lead ... the development ... substitute products.

5. Задайте все виды вопросов к следующему предложению.

The key element in this segment of market organization is the degree of seller concentration.

 

Контрольная работа 3

Вариант 2

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TEXT

What is oligopoly

An oligopoly exists when a few sellers of a commodity or service deal with1 a large number of buyers. When a few sellers face a few buyers, that situation is known as bilateral oligopoly. In the case of oligopoly a small number of companies supply the major portion of an industry's output. In effect the industry is composed of a few large firms which account for a significant share of the total production. Thus, the actions of the individual firms have an appreciable effect on their competitors.

However, it does not follow as a consequence of the presence of relatively few firms in an industry that competition is absent. Although there are few firms in an industry, they may still act independently, and the outcome of their actions is consistent with competition. With few firms in an industry, each takes into account the likely repercussions of its actions. For example, each seller knows that if he or she lowers prices, the few competitors will immediately follow suit2 and lower their prices, leaving the seller with roughly the same3 share of the total market but lower profits. However, the seller may be reluctant to raise prices4 because competitors might not follow this lead5.

One feature of markets with few sellers is that prices are often stable, except during periods of very rapid inflation. Also, prices of oligopolistic industries generally fluctuate less widely than in more competitive industries.

Пояснения к тексту

1) to deal with – иметь  дело с чем-либо (кем-либо);

2) to follow suit – следовать примеру, подражать;

3) roughly the same – практически такой же;

4) to be reluctant to do smth – неохотно делать что-то;

5) to follow the lead – последовать примеру.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. When does oligopoly exist?

2. What is bilateral oligopoly?

3. What do the firms which compose the industry account for?

4. What is known to happen if one competitor lowers the price?

5. Why may the seller be reluctant to raise prices?

6. What is the feature of the market with few sellers?

2. Заполните пропуски следующими выражениями, поставив их в нужную форму:

To deal with smth, to face smth, to be composed of smth, to be reluctant to do smth, in the case of smth.

1. In effect the industry ... a few large firms which account for a significant share of the total production.

2. However, the seller may ... prices because competitors might not follow this lead.

3. An oligopoly exists when a few sellers of a commodity or service ... a large number  of buyers.

4. When a few sellers ... a few buyers, that situation is known as bilateral oligopoly.

5. ... oligopoly a small number of companies supply the major portion of an industry's output.

3. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные со значением деятеля и переведите пары слов на русский язык.

1) produce -

2) consume -

3) trade -

4) purchase -

5) sell -

6) observe -

7) buy -

4. Укажите, какие утверждения не соответствуют содержанию текста и исправьте их.

1. When a few sellers face a few buyers, that situation is known as unilateral oligopoly.

2. The actions of the individual firms have an appreciable effect on their competitors.

3. Each seller knows that if he or she lowers prices, the few competitors will immediately follow suit and raise their prices.

4. Prices of oligopolistic industries generally fluctuate more widely than in more competitive industries.

5. Составьте письменно краткий пересказ текста (не более четырех предложений).

 

Контрольная работа 4

Вариант I

Переведите текст.

TEXT

Macroeconomics

The word macroeconomics means economics in the large1. The macroeconomist's concerns are with such global questions as total production2, total employment, the rate of change of overall prices3, the rate of economic growth, and so on.

Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity and analyze the determinants of such activity by the use of macroeconomic theory.

An important task of macroeconomics is to develop ways of aggregating the values of the economic activities of individuals and firms into meaningful totals4. To this end5 such concepts as gross domestic product (GDP)6, national income, personal income, and personal disposable income7 have been developed.

Macroeconomic analysis attempts to explain how the magnitudes of the principal macroeconomic variables are determined and how they interact. And through the development of theories of the business cycle8 and economic growth, macroeconomics helps to explain the dynamics of how these aggregates9 move over time.

Macroeconomics is concerned with such major policy issues as the attainment and maintenance of full employment and price stability. Considerable effort must first be expended to determine what goals could be achieved. Experience teaches that it would not be possible to eliminate inflation entirely without inducing a major recession combined with high unemployment.

Пояснения к тексту

1) in the large – в целом;

2) total production – общая производительность;

3) the rate of change of overall prices – коэффициент изменений предельных цен;

4) meaningful totals – значимые итоги;

5) to this end – с этой целью;

6) gross domestic product (GDP) – валовой внутренний продукт (ВВП);

7) personal disposable income – личный доход после уплаты налогов;

8) business cycle – экономический цикл;

9) aggregates – совокупности.

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What does the word macroeconomics mean?

2. What are the concerns of a macroeconomist?

3. What is, according to the text, an important task of macroeconomics?

4. What does macroeconomic analysis attempt to explain?

5. What are the concepts of macroeconomics?

6. What are the most important theories of macroeconomics?

2. Укажите, какие утверждения не соответствуют содержанию текста и исправьте их.

1. Macroeconomics deals with global questions .

2. Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity and analyze the determinants of such activity by the use of microeconomic theory.

3. Such concepts as gross domestic product, national income and personal disposable income serve as meaningful totals.

4. Theory of business cycles concerns business. That is why this is a microeconomic theory.

5. Inflation could not be eliminated without some negative changes in economics.

3. Заполните пропуски предлогами.

1. An important task ... macroeconomics is to develop ways ... aggregating the values ... the economic activities ... individuals and firms ... meaningful totals.

2. And ... the development ... theories ... the business cycle and economic growth, macroeconomics helps to explain the dynamics ... how these aggregates move ... time.

3. Macroeconomics is concerned ... such major policy issues as the attainment and maintenance … full employment and price stability.

4. Experience teaches that it would not be possible to eliminate inflation entirely ... inducing a major recession combined ... high unemployment.

4. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словам и выражениям.

1) total production;

2) total employment;

3) the rate of change of overall prices;

4) GDP;

5) national income;

6) personal income;

7) personal disposable income.

5. Выберите из текста 4 ключевых предложения, которые послужили бы основой для краткого пересказа.

 

Контрольная работа 4

Вариант II

Переведите текст.

TEXT

Microeconomics

The word «micro» means small, and microeconomics means economics in the small1. The optimizing behavior of individual units such as households and firms provides the foundation for microeconomics.

Microeconomists may investigate individual markets or even the economy as a whole, but their analyses are derived from the aggregation2 of the behavior of individual units. Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics3. For example, it is used in industrial organization, labor economics, international trade, cost-benefit analysis4, and many other economic subfields. The tools and analyses of microeconomics provide a common ground, and even a language, for economists interested in a wide range of problems.

At one time there was a sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter5 between microeconomics and macroeconomics.

The methodological distinction became somewhat blurred6 during the 1970s as more and more macroeconomic analyses were built upon microeconomic foundations. Nonetheless, major distinctions remain between the two major branches of economics. For example, the microeconomist is interested in the determination of individual prices and relative prices (i.e., exchange ratios7 between goods), whereas the macroeconomist is interested more in the general price level and its change over time.

Пояснения к тексту

1) in the small –  в малом, локально;

2) aggregation – агрегирование, объединение;

3) applied economics – прикладная экономика;

4) cost-benefit analysis – анализ затрат и результатов;

5) subject matter – предмет, тема обсуждения;

6) to blur – затуманивать, размывать;

7) exchange ratios – ставка (соотношение обмена).

1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы к тексту.

1. What is, according to the text, microeconomics?

2. What is the foundation for microeconomics?

3. What are microeconomists' analyses derived from?

4. Where is microeconomic theory used?

5. Are there any distinctions between the two major branches of economics?

6. What are the macroeconomist and the microeconomist interested in?

2. Укажите, какие утверждения не соответствуют содержанию текста и исправьте их.

1. Microeconomists' analyses are derived from the economy as a whole.

2. Microeconomic theory is used in industrial organization, labor economics, international trade, cost-benefit analysis, and many other economic subfields.

3. There have never been any distinctions in both methodology and subject matter between microeconomics and macroeconomics.

4. The macroeconomist is interested in the determination of individual prices and relative prices, whereas the microeconomist is interested more in the general price level and its change over time.

3. Заполните пропуски предлогами.

1. Microeconomic theory is used extensively ... many areas ... applied economics.

2. The tools and analyses of microeconomics provide a common ground ... economists interested ... a wide range ... problems.

3. At one time there was a sharp distinction ... both methodology and subject matter ... microeconomics and macroeconomics.

4. Nonetheless, major distinctions remain ... the two major branches ... economics.

4. Найдите русские эквиваленты к следующим английским словосочетаниям:

1) optimizing behavior of individual units;

2) industrial organization;

3) labor economics;

4) international trade;

5) cost-benefit analysis;

6) sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter.

5. Задайте все виды вопросов к следующему предложению.

At one time there was a sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter between microeconomics and macroeconomics.





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