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Обязательные задания для выполнения обучающимися
Необходимо выполнить для получения зачета в 3-м семестре.
В обязательном порядке обучающийся должен письменно перевести один из предложенных текстов и выполнить все задания к тексту:
The process of calculating the costs of starting a small business begins with a list of all necessary purchases including tangible assets (for example, equipment, inventory) and services (for example, remodeling, insurance), working capital, sources and collateral. The budget should contain a narrative explaining how you decided on the amount of this reserve and a description of the expected financial results of business activities. The assets should be valued with each and every cost. All other expenses are like labour factory overhead all freshmen expenses are also included into business budgeting.
The budget of a company is often compiled annually, but may not be. A finished budget, usually requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future, typically one year. While traditionally the Finance department compiles the company's budget, modern software allows hundreds or even thousands of people in various departments (operations, human resources, IT, etc.) to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget.
If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been successfully driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an 'out of control' signal, and the share price could suffer as a result.
A budget is a fundamental tool for an event director to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. A budget can also be used as a pricing tool.
There are two basic approaches or philosophies when it comes to budgeting. One approach focuses on mathematical models, and the other on people.
The first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables, inputs and outputs, drivers and the like. Investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are typically held in some type of financial spreadsheet application.
The other school of thought holds that it’s not about models, it’s about people. No matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business. The focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the business more fully in the budget process, and building accountability for the results. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets. While many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other.
1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.
2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. The budget of a company is usually compiled ……….
a) every week
b) every month
2. ……… is a fundamental tool to predict with reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even.
b) financial model
c) overhead expense
3. Traditionally the ………. compiles the company's budget.
c) Finance department
4. When a company owns some material things they are called ………
b) tangible assets
c) intangible assets
5. The managers involved in the budget process have …………….
3. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is a budget?
2. What should the budget contain?
3. Who compiles the budget?
4. What two basic approaches are used in budgeting?
5. How often is budget compiled?
Microeconomics, like macroeconomics, is a fundamental method for analyzing the economy as a system. It treats households and firms interacting through individual markets as irreducible elements of the economy, given scarcity and government regulation. A market might be for a product, say fresh corn, or the services of a factor of production, say bricklaying. The theory considers aggregates of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers at each possible price per unit. It combines these together to describe how the market may reach equilibrium as to price and quantity or respond to market changes over time.
Such analysis includes the theory of supply and demand. It also examines market structures, such as perfect competition and monopoly for implications as to behavior and economic efficiency. Analysis of change in a single market often proceeds from the simplifying assumption that relations in other markets remain unchanged, that is, partial-equilibrium analysis. General-equilibrium theory allows for changes in different markets and aggregates across all markets, including their movements and interactions toward equilibrium.Here economists distinguish between Production theory, Opportunity cost, Economic efficiency, and Production-possibility frontier.
In microeconomics, production is the conversion of inputs into outputs. It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a commodity for exchange or direct use. Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Distinctions include such production alternatives as for consumption (food, haircuts, etc.) vs. investment goods (new tractors, buildings, roads, etc.), public goods (national defense, small-pox vaccinations, etc.) or private goods (new computers, bananas, etc.), and "guns" vs. "butter".
Opportunity cost refers to the economic cost of production: the value of the next best opportunity foregone. Choices must be made between desirable yet mutually exclusive actions. It has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice.". The opportunity cost of an activity is an element in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently, such that the cost is weighed against the value of that activity in deciding on more or less of it. Opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs but could be measured by the real cost of output forgone, leisure, or anything else that provides the alternative benefit.
Inputs used in the production process include such primary factors of production as labour services, capital (durable produced goods used in production, such as an existing factory), and land (including natural resources). Other inputs may include intermediate goods used in production of final goods, such as the steel in a new car.
Economic efficiency describes how well a system generates desired output with a given set of inputs and available technology. Efficiency is improved if more output is generated without changing inputs, or in other words, the amount of "waste" is reduced. A widely-accepted general standard is Pareto efficiency, which is reached when no further change can make someone better off without making someone else worse off.
1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.
2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. A fundamental method for analyzing the economy as a system is …….
a) government regulation
c) production theory
2. Labour services, capital and land are called ……..
a) production process
c) factors of production
3. The market may reach ………. when price and quantity balance.
4. ………. is the conversion of inputs into outputs.
5. ……. include new buildings, trucks, roads, etc.
a) investment goods
b) public goods
c) private goods
3. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is microeconomics?
2. What does economic efficiency describe?
3. What is production?
4. How can a market reach equilibrium?
5. What do factors of production include?
Задание для промежуточной аттестации обучающихся
Промежуточная аттестация (экзамен в 4-м семестре) проводится как выполнение контрольных заданий в письменной форме.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите письмо, ответьте на вопросы:
A letter of application
The purpose of a letter of application is to attract positive attention so that the employer will call you to set up an interview.
Southern Leisure Hotels
Write with full CV to Mr. George Davies. Director,
Southern Leisure Hotels Ltd, 24 Lakeland Road,
Bedhampton, Mendleshire KR5 9 UJ
46 Chorleywood Road
Herts WD3 4 ES
25th April 2000
Mr. George Davies. Director,
Southern Leisure Hotels Ltd,
24 Lakeland Road,
Bedhampton, Mendleshire KR4 9 UJ
Dear Mr. Davies,
I saw your advertisement for a Group Manager in this week's issue of The Caterer and Hotelkeeper and should like to apply for the position.
As requested, I enclose my CV. I served a six-year apprenticeship at 1'hotel Geneve, spending time in all departments of this 5-star hotel.
German is my mother tongue but as I worked at a French-owned hotel I became almost bilingual. 1 have always studied English, and with many English visitors, and occasionally some English trainees, I was able to practice my spoken English.
My three years at Bailey's Hotels also gave me experience in English hotels and an opportunity to use my English when I worked at hotels in Brighton, Eastbound and Torquay. Since leaving Bailey's I have been manager at the Bellean Hotel, Swaby. I now feel I should like the greater challenge of managing a group of prestigious hotels.
If I am given two or three days' notice I could attend an interview at any time.
1. What do you write in the top right-hand corner?
2. What do you write below it?
3. Where do you write the name and address of the person or company you are writing to?
4. When do you use the following salutations?
Dear Mr Brown / Ms Smith
Dear Sir or Madam
5. When do you use these endings?
6. How should you sign your letter?
7. What information do you give in separate paragraphs?
Задание 2. Расположите части письма в правильном порядке:12 RueChantily
Paris de France
15th August 2000 MrJ.K.Green
Thrush Books Ltd
15 Rowans Road
Wessex UV20 8DT
Dear Mr. Green,
1. I am 20 years old, and have just completed a year's intensive study of English at the Language Academy at Rouen. My father is French and my mother is Austrian, so I am bilingual in French and German.
2. I hope this is the information you need and I am the kind of person you are looking for. If so I would be grateful for more details about the job and an application form. I look forward to hearing from you.
3. I am writing in reply to your advertisement in the Daily News for a secretary in the Foreign Department.
4. I havealso completed a course for English secretaries at the Mountain Secretarial College; my typing speed in English is 50 wpm, I am used to audio typing in English and I can use a word processor.
Задание 3. Прочитайте письмо задания 2 еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, исходя из того, что это вы собираетесь получить эту работу:
What position are you applying for?
How did you find out about the opening?
Why are you interested in this position with this company?
What makes you specially qualified for the position? (skills, special abilities, background, education, experience, motivation, etc.)
What can you contribute to the company?
When can you start work?
When and how can the employer reach you to set up an interview?
Задание 4. Прочитайте объявления и переведите, по одному из них напишите резюме – письмо.
Print Production Manager Wanted
A well-known print company, now well established in the UK and in the Far East, wishes to set up a manufacturing base in Europe. An experienced manager, responsible to the Production Director, is required to assist in setting up the department and will then take charge of the day-to-day work.
The successful applicant will have had experience of modern methods and machines especially in the printing, multicolour work and finishing processes. He / she will have had at least three years' experience in cost-effective management. A good working knowledge of English is essential.
We offer excellent pay and prospects, with 4 weeks' holiday a year plus public holidays and a company pension scheme.
Interviews will be arranged in the nearest large town to the applicant's home. Write, with CV, to The Personnel Manager, Box 32509, Daily News, Kemsworth Street Comston, United Kingdom SGI53 22AH.
Accountant requires assistant, preferably with previous experience. He / she must have an aptitude for figures. As the firm has many clients with businesses in Europe, fluency in English, French and German is essential.
Generous salary and benefits are offered-
Write enclosing a CV to:
Mr. John Anderson, Milner, Nation and Partners, Lynn House, King's Road, Poynton V6 8MN.
A privately owned group of hotels with extensive leisure facilities catering for overseas visitors is looking for an enthusiastic person to assist in the expansion of the hotel.
The successful applicant will have experience of all aspects of hotel work and at least one year's experience as an Assistant Manager.
Applicants need a good knowledge of English and possibly two other languages.
Generous salary, bonus, good holidays and excellent prospects for promotion within the group.
Apply in confidence with full curriculum vitae and a recent photograph to:
Mr. G. Bateman, Castle Hotel, Green Strelt; Barton BR7 8QT
Executive Personal Assistants
We have three high-profile opportunities for efficient Secretaries to join us in providing administrative support for Executive Trust Directors.
Your responsibilities will include arranging and servicing meetings, coordinating papers, collating agendas and taking minutes. You will brief directors prior to appointments, deal with all incoming correspondence and generally prioritise their workload. Working as part of a team, you will also be expected to cover during the absence of your fellow executive PAs.
Your audio and WP skills should include a working knowledge of MS Office and Word for Windows. We'll also expect you to have well-developed organisational and planning skills together with a genuine ability to communicate with people at all levels. We would like one post-holder to commence at the end of February and the other two towards the end of March. All assignments are for an initial period of six months, with the possibility of extension thereafter.
For an application pack please telephone 0171-463 2520/2582 quoting Ref PA. The closing date for receipt of completed application is Monday 19 January 1998. Interviews are scheduled for Monday 26 January 1998.
The London Ambulance Service NHS Trust is committed to equal opportunities. We also operate a smoke-free workplace.
Задание 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляяглаголывтребующейсяформе:
1. What are you (to talk) about? 2. We have just (to talk) about it. 3. He has just (to say) something about it. 4. She is (to tell) them some interesting story. 5. He has (to tell) us nothing about it. 6. She has (to tell) them some stories about dogs. 7. We have (to have) two lessons today. 8. They are (to have) a meeting. 9. She has not (to speak) yet. 10. They have (to ask) me several questions. 11. He has already (to learn) the rule. 12. I am (to write) an exercise. 13. What is he (to do)? , — He is (to read) a newspaper. 14. Have you (to | read) any stories by Jack London? 15. What are you (to do) here? — I am (to write) a letter to my friends. 16. Who has (to write) this article? 17. What language are you (to study)? 18 We have already (to learn) a lot of English words. 19. What is she (to teach) them? 20. Who has (to teach) you to do it? 21. He has just (to do) something for us. 22. Have you (to find) the book? 23. Whatareyou (tolook) for?