РГУП, английский язык (контрольная работа, г.Москва, варианты 1-15)
07.03.2018, 12:53

Контрольная работа № 1/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Environmental problems».

Контрольная работа № 1/2

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Hammurabi’s Code of Laws

The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi is best known for the creation of the Code of Hammurabi which was one of the first written laws in the world. The Code of Hammurabi was written on a large stone monument, and placed in a public place. A carving at the top of the pillar portrays Hammurabi receiving the laws from the god Marduk, and the preface states that Hammurabi was chosen by the gods of his people to bring the laws to them. The purpose of the code may have been the self-glorification of Hammurabi, his wisdom and justice.

The Code consisted of 282 articles covering important areas of law and commerce. It contained scaled punishments depending on social status of a citizen. Under the Code, each offense received a specified punishment. The punishments were very harsh by modern standards, with many offenses resulting in death. The code is also one of the earliest examples of the idea of presumption of innocence, and it also suggests that the accused and the accuser have the opportunity to provide evidence.

The Hammurabi’s сode can be considered as the primitive form of what is now known as a constitution and an example of the fact that even a king is not able to change fundamental laws concerning the governing of a country.

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Контрольная работа № 2/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Fashion».

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Draconian Laws

Draco was the first legislator of ancient Athens in 7th century BC. He replaced the system of oral law and blood feud by a written code. Because of its harshness, this code also gave rise to the term "draconian".

Draco’s laws were the first written constitution of Athens. So that no one would be unaware of them, they were posted on wooden tablets where they were preserved for almost two centuries.

The laws had several major innovations: 1) instead of oral laws known only to a special class, all laws were written, thus made known to all literate citizens, 2) the laws distinguished between murder and involuntary homicide.

Draco’s laws, however, were particularly cruel. For example, any debtor whose status was lower than that of his creditor was forced into slavery. The death penalty was the punishment for even minor offenses. Some of the citizens asked why he had named such a terrible punishment for so small a crime as the theft of a cabbage. Draco replied that a person who had stolen even the smallest thing was dishonest, and deserved death; and he did not know greater and severer punishment to inflict for more serious crimes.

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Контрольная работа № 3/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Family problems».

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Law Code of Draco

The nobility in Athens had been making all the decisions for long enough. In 621 B.C. the people of Athens refused to accept arbitrary, oral rules of the aristocrats and judges.

A severe ruler called Draco was chosen to draw up new laws. He made them so strict and cruel that the least sin was punished as if it had been a crime, and a man was sentenced to be hanged for stealing.

When the Athenians heard these new laws, they were frightened. Such severity had never been known before; and people said that the laws had been written in blood instead of ink.

As a result of Draco's strict, unforgiving code, the adjective based on the name Draco - draconian - refers to penalties considered excessively severe. Under the laws of Draco, people in debt could be made slaves - but only if they were members of the lower class. Another result of the codification of laws by Draco was the introduction of the concept of "intention to murder." Murder could be manslaughter (either justifiable or accidental) or intentional homicide.

The Athenians had all promised to obey Draco's laws. Then, driven wild by their strictness, they rose up, expelled the lawmaker out of the city, and forced him to go to the Island of  Egina. Here Draco spent the rest of his life.

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Контрольная работа № 4/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Global problems».

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Solons Laws

Solon was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic and moral decline in Athens. His reforms soon failed yet he is known for having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy.

Knowledge about Solon is limited by the lack of documentary and archeological evidence from Athens in the early 6th century BC.

Solon's laws revised the laws enacted by Draco in the late 7th century. Nothing of Draco's codification survived except for a law relating to homicide. The records we have of Solon's laws are fragmentary. Moreover, the language of his laws was archaic even by the standards of the fifth century and this caused interpretational problems for ancient commentators.

Generally, Solon's reforms appear to have been constitutional, economic and moral. He legislated for all citizens to be admitted into the Assembly and for a court to be formed from all the citizens. By giving common people the power not only to elect officials but also to call them to account, Solon established the foundations of true democracy.

After completing his work of reform, Solon surrendered his extraordinary authority and left the country.

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Контрольная работа № 5/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Mass Media».

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The Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is an act of the Parliament of England, whose full title is An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown. It is often called the English Bill of Rights.

The Bill of Rights was passed by Parliament in December 1689. It was a re-statement of the Declaration of Right presented by the Parliament to William and Mary the Orange in March 1689, inviting them to become joint sovereigns of England. It enumerates certain rights to which subjects and permanent residents of a constitutional monarchy were entitled in the late 17th century. It also set out certain constitutional requirements to the monarch.

The Bill of Rights laid out certain basic rights for all Englishmen which continue to apply today, not only in England, but in each of the jurisdictions of the Commonwealth as well. The act set out that there should be:

no royal interference with the law

no taxation by Royal Prerogative

freedom to petition the monarch

no standing army during peacetime

freedom of the people to have arms for their own defence

no royal interference in the election of members of parliament

freedom of speech and debates

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Контрольная работа № 6/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Money».

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Habeas Corpus

Habeas Corpus is a legal act through which a person can seek relief from the unlawful arrest. It protects the individual from being harmed by the judicial system. The writ of Habeas Corpus has historically been an important instrument for the safeguarding of individual freedom against arbitrary state action.

A writ of Habeas Corpus, also known as "The Great Writ", is a court order addressed to the prison governor demanding that a prisoner be brought before the court, allowing the court to determine whether that governor has lawful authority to hold that person; if not, the person must be released from custody.

The right to petition for a writ of Habeas Corpus has long been considered as the most efficient safeguard of the liberty of the subject. The British jurist Albert Venn Dicey wrote that the Habeas Corpus Act "declares no principle and defines no rights, but for practical purposes it is worth a hundred constitutional articles guaranteeing individual liberty." In most countries, however, the procedure of Habeas Corpus can be suspended in time of national emergency.

The writ of Habeas Corpus belongs to orders which were issued by the courts in the name of the monarch to control inferior courts and public authorities within the kingdom.

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Контрольная работа № 7/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Sports, Health & Beauty».

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta is an English charter, originally issued in the year 1215, and first passed into law in 1225.

The 1215 Charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary. For example he had to admit that no "freeman" could be punished except by the law of the land, a right which is still in existence today.

Magna Carta was the first document forced onto an English King by a group of his subjects (the barons) in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges.

The charter was an important part of the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world, although it was "far from unique, either in content or form". In practice, Magna Carta in the medieval period did not limit the power of the kings in general, but by the time of the English Civil War it had become an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was bound by the law.

It influenced the early settlers in New England and inspired later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution.

Magna Carta is generally considered part of the written constitution of Great Britain.

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Контрольная работа № 8/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Travelling».

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The Bill of Rights Act

The Bill of Rights Act, 1689 is considered to be the third greatest charter of English liberties after the Magna Carta and the Petition of Right. The Bill of Rights not only protected the rights of individuals and civil rights but set out strict limits on the use of Royal prerogatives by the sovereign. It was part of a package of laws that reformed the English constitution.

The Bill of Rights Act passed through Parliament and on 16 December, 1689, the King and Queen gave it Royal Assent, passing it into English law. It ended the concept of Divine Right of Kings and made kings and queens subject to laws passed by Parliament.

In addition to proscribing the illegal practices of James II, the Bill of Rights legislated on some very important issues:

· it prohibited arbitrary suspension of Parliament's laws by the sovereign.

· it limited the sovereigns' right to raise money through taxation, without the consent of Parliament.

· it guaranteed that the sovereign would not interfere in the free and fair elections of Members of Parliament.

· it guaranteed the freedom of speech within parliamentary debates.

· it made illegal keeping military forces in time of peace without consent of Parliament.

· it made illegal the imposition of excessive fines or cruel punishments.

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Контрольная работа № 9/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Youth  problems».

Контрольная работа № 9/2

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CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE

When someone is arrested for a criminal offence that does not mean that they automatically go to court and then prison. The police have to gather evidence to prove that an individual has committed the offence, and if the police can't get enough information then the charges must be dropped.

The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is the organisation responsible for deciding, whether to proceed and then conducting the prosecution of cases in the magistrates' courts or in the Crown Court. In fact, almost all reported criminal offences within England and Wales are dealt with by the CPS, who will advise on and review all cases. The main objective of each branch of the CPS is to ensure the fair prosecution of alleged criminal offenders in England and Wales. As well as advising police on possible prosecutions, the CPS also has to ensure that the correct defendants are prosecuted on the correct charges.

If a particular case goes to magistrates' court then the CPS will carry out the prosecution, but if a case is serious enough for the Crown Court or higher, then the CPS will instruct and advise counsels. The CPS also co-operates with other law enforcement agencies to improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. The CPS recently reorganised its structure to change from 14 areas to 42, in line with the regional structure of other parts of the criminal justice system.

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Контрольная работа № 10/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Work& Career».

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English Law

English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States except Louisiana. It was exported to Commonwealth countries during the British Empire, and many aspects of that system have persisted after the British withdrew or granted independence to former colonies and dominions. It forms the basis of the jurisprudence of most of those countries.

The essence of English common law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent  to the facts before them. A decision of the highest appeal court in England and Wales, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, and they must follow its directions. For example, there is no statute making murder illegal, it is illegal by virtue of the constitutional authority of the courts and their previous decisions.

England and Wales are constituent countries of the United Kingdom, which is a member of the European Union. Hence, EU law is a part of English law. The European Union consists mainly of countries which use civil law and so the civil law system is also present in England.

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Контрольная работа № 11/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Science & Technology».

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THE JURY

The jury is the main element in criminal trials in the Crown court, being responsible for deciding questions of fact. The jury consists of 12 jurors, chosen by lot from the waiting group of some 30 names, before the start of a criminal trial. Both the prosecution and the defence can reject up to seven of them. (For some kinds of case defending counsel reject people who look too severe or even too soberly dressed). Also, any juror who knows anything about the accused person or the case must be replaced by another. Both the judge and the jury must try the case only on evidence immediately relevant to it.

The chosen jury then listens to the evidence given at the trial and gives its verdict on the facts after having been isolated in a separate room for its deliberations. Until 1967 the verdict had to be unanimous. But now the judge will accept a majority verdict after the jury has deliberated for more than two hours, provided that there are no more than 2 dissenters in the normal jury of 12. The jury does not fix the punishment or sentence, which is the prerogative of the judge.

The jury system is good since it is the ordinary citizen's link with the legal process; the jury safeguards individual liberty and justice because a common-sense decision either to punish or to acquit is taken by fellow citizens rather than by professionals.

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Контрольная работа № 12/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Leisure Time Activities».

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The Napoleonic Code

The Napoleonic Code is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified people. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and was enacted on March 21, 1804. The Napoleonic Code was the first modern legal code and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleon started to reform the French legal system in accordance with the ideas of the French Revolution. The purpose of the Code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law system; it made laws much clearer and much more accessible.

The preliminary article of the Code established certain important provisions. Laws could be applied only if they had been duly proclaimed, and only if they had been published officially; thus no secret laws were authorized. It prohibited laws that apply to events that occurred before them.

With regard to family, the Code established the supremacy of the husband with respect to the wife and children. It did, however, allow divorce on liberal basis compared to other European countries, including divorce by mutual consent.

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Контрольная работа № 13/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Shopping».

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A TRIAL

A person accused of a crime, when he is brought into the court, is asked by the clerk if he is guilty or not. If he says that he is not guilty, he must be tried in order to establish whether he is in fact guilty or not. For this purpose a jury has to be appointed. About thirty citizens whose names were chosen randomly out of the list of local residents (male or female householders) will be sitting in a special room of the courthouse being ready to serve as members of juries. From this group twelve will be called out to be the jury for the particular case. Both the prosecution and the defence may object to any person who is called out for the jury. When the jury is in its place (the jury box), the trial begins.

If the accused has pleaded guilty, then no trial is necessary, and the court can go straight to deciding on his punishment. Before the judge pronounces the sentence, a police witness gives evidence about any previous convictions of the prisoner, and also about his character as far as the police knew anything about it. The prisoner may speak too, and others may speak on his behalf. A person may appeal to the Court of Appeal against conviction or sentence.

If a person is found guilty of a small offence and has no previous convictions, he may receive no punishment at all, but if he does wrong again the first offence will be taken into account along with the next.

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Контрольная работа № 14/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «Modern society and its problems».

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MAGISTRATES COURTS

There are two main kinds of courts in England. Courts of first instance are presided by magistrates, who are normally Justices of the Peace (JPs); higher courts (Crown Courts) are presided by judges.

Every person charged with an offence is summoned to appear before a local magistrates' court, which may impose a fine up to a general lim­it of £2,000 or twelve months' imprisonment, though for some specified offences the laws prescribe maximum penalties below these limits. With 98 per cent of cases the magistrates decide on guilt or inno­cence, and if necessary what penalty to impose. With more serious cases the magistrates can decide only to send them for trial in a Crown Court. A person accused before a magistrates' court may demand to be sent for trial before a crown court in some of the more serious cases with which in general the magistrates could have dealt themselves.

A magistrates' court normally consists of three Justices of the Peace (occasionally, two or four or more). The JPs are ordinary but reputable cit­izens who have been appointed to their positions by the Lord Chancellor on the advice of local appointing committees. JPs have no formal qualifi­cations; they are chosen merely for their good reputation, often with the support of political parties or approved voluntary bodies. Once appoint­ed, they are expected to attend courses of instruction about their work.

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Контрольная работа № 15/1

Напишите эссе (180-200 слов) на тему «City & Country».

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Human Rights

Everybody knows that many of the rights of citizens are considered human rights. For example, a constitutional right is one which a state guarantees to its own citizens and sometimes even to foreigners who are within its jurisdiction.

Still a question comes: What are human rights? Not everyone agrees that being born a human being someone is entitled to certain freedoms and certain treatment. And those who agree have different opinions as to what these rights are. Human rights are ones to which people all over the world are entitled, whatever their nationality and wherever they live. They are basic minimum standards of freedom and security for all people.

As a rule, human rights are violated when governments violate their own constitutions, and very often their policies make citizens escape to other countries. But legally, most countries have signed international agreements concerning the treatment of individuals. The most important agreement is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. Article 1 of the Declaration  claims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and Article 2 states that it does not depend upon race, color, sex, language, religion or any other difference among people.

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ПЛАНИРОВАНИЕ И ПРОГНОЗИРОВАНИЕ
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СТАТИСТИКА
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ТЕОРИЯ ВЕРОЯТНОСТЕЙ И МАТ. СТАТИСТИКА
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ФИНАНСЫ, ДЕНЕЖНОЕ ОБРАЩЕНИЕ И КРЕДИТ
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ЭКОНОМИКА
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ЭКОНОМИКА ПРЕДПРИЯТИЯ, ОТРАСЛИ
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ГУМАНИТАРНЫЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
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ДРУГИЕ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
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ЕСТЕСТВЕННЫЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
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ПРАВОВЫЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
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ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
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РАБОТЫ, ВЫПОЛНЕННЫЕ НАШИМИ АВТОРАМИ
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ОНЛАЙН ТЕСТЫ
ВМ, ТВ и МС, статистика, мат. методы, эконометрика