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13.03.2015, 11:24

Variant 1

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы после текста


When Honduras exports bananas o Switzerland, they can use the money they earn to import Swiss chocolate or to pay for Kuwaiti oil or  a vacation in Hawaii. The basic idea of international trade and investment is simple: each country produces goods or services that can be either consumed at  home or exported to other countries. The main difference between domestic trade and international trade is the use of foreign currencies to pay for the goods and services crossing international borders. Although global trade is often added up in U.S. dollars, the trading itself involves various currencies. Japanese videocassette recorder is paid for in euro in Berlin, and German cars are paid for in U.S. dollars in Boston. Indian tea, Brazilian coffee, and American films are sold around the world in currencies as diverse as Turkish liras and Mexican pesos. Whenever a country imports or exports goods and services, there is a resulting flow of funds: money returns to the exporting nation, and money flows out of the importing nation. Trade and investment is a two-way street, and with a minimum of trade barriers, international trade and investment usually makes everyone better off. In an interlinked global economy, consumers are given the opportunity to buy the best products at the best prices. By opening up markets, a government allows its citizens to produce and export those things they are best at and to import the rest, choosing from whatever the world has to offer. Some trade barriers will always exist as long as any two countries have different sets of laws. However, when a country decides to protect its economy by erecting artificial trade barriers, the result is often damaging to everyone, including those people whose barriers were meant to protect. The Great Depression of the 1930s, for example, spread around the world when the United States decided to erect trade barriers to protect local producers. As other countries retaliated, trade plumpered,  jobs were lost, and the world entered into a long period of economic decline.

Explanatory Notes:

1. retaliate - мстить

2. plumper - падать

1. What is the basic idea of international trade?

2. What is the main difference between domestic and international trade?

3. How can you consider trade barriers?

4. What were the consequences of the Great Depression of the 1930s?

2.  Поставьте глагол в соответствующее время, форму и залог.

1. Jill often (to use) a dictionary while reading English texts. 2. Tim just (to go) out. I think, he will return in an hour. 3. They (to discuss) this problem when the chief entered the room. 4. What film you (to watch) now? 5. Bread (to be eaten) every day. 6. I think, you (to pass) your exam successfully. 7. Where he (to go) yesterday? 8. The beaches (to be overcrowded) last summer. 9.  I (not to be) to any foreign country yet. 10. After he (to have) supper Michael went for a walk.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующую глагольную форму в сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточным условия или времени. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. If you (to be) more attentive, you would speak English better. 2. If I (to know) you were coming, I would have baked the cake. 3. He won’t do it if you (not to help) him. 4. He (to act) differently if he had understood the situation. 5. We will go out as soon as the weather (to change) for the better. 6. Mary (to visit) the theatre when she gets the tickets. 7. If it (not to stop) raining, we will not go out. 8. He wouldn’t have had a crash if he (to follow) the rules. 9. I would be glad if you (to come) to my place. 10. If I (to be) a teacher of English, I would speak in class only in English.

4. Раскройте скобкиупотребив соответствующий модальный глагол или его эквивалентпереведите предложения на русский язык (can-could-will be able to, may, must-have to-had to, should, to be to, needn’t).

  1. - I have a headache. – You … go to the doctor’s. 2. … I borrow your book, please? 3. Terry …swim well when she was 5 years old. 4. Where … the performance to take place? 5 You … go shopping. We have all necessary things at home. 6. You … smoke here. It’s prohibited by the law. 7. We …to walk there as our car was broken. 8. I … to translate his letter myself next time. 9. They … go to the park because they are busy. 10. … you tell me the way to the post office, please?

5. Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи и переведите их на  русский язык.

1. «Speak up, please,» said the teacher to the student. 2. «Don’t worry about me,» said Nick to his mother. 3. Ann said to her sister: «I have met Tommy in the street today.» 4. John said to Nellie: «I went to Paris last year.» 5. The chief asked: «Did you meet the delegation yesterday?» 6. The doctor asked: «What temperature do you have?» 7. George said: «It was so difficult to win the game.» 8. Terry said to me: «My parents will take me to the next expedition with them.» 9. My friend asked me: «Can you show me your photo?» 10. She said: «I am going to leave for Moscow tonight.» 11. «Are you working today?» asked Jim his friend. 12. «Will you get the tickets to the Philharmonic on Sunday?» asked she her brother. 13. «Why are you so gloomy?» asked Jack his sister. 14. My children said:  «We will not do our homework until you buy us ice-cream.»  15. «Were you present at the meeting yesterday?» asked Mary her husband.


Variant 2

1.Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы после текста


People and societies organize economic life to deal with the basic problems through economic systems. An economic system can be described as the collection of institutions, laws, activities that govern economic relationship among people in a society and provide a framework for answering the basic economic questions.

Most economic systems use one or more of three basic methods to make economic decisions: tradition, command and markets. So economic systems are classified into four broad categories, according to how most economic decisions are made. These are traditional, command, market and mixed economies.

Traditional economies. People generally repeat the decisions made at an earlier time or by an earlier generation. Can just anyone be king or queen of England? Tradition answers that question. In the US women were strongly directed to certain "traditional" occupations for many years, such as teaching, raising children, nursing and being librarians.

Command economies. They rely almost totally on government  to make economic decisions through centralized authorities. The government owns all the major productive resources. The former USSR and some other  eastern countries are examples of countries where government decisions are dominant.

Market economies. Most productive resources are owned by private individuals (as households or through business they own). Individuals make  economic decisions in response to market signals and   on the basis of their own preferences.

Mixed economies. The economic system used in most countries lies between the two extremes of command and market economies. Mixed economies answer the basic economic questions partly through the market and partly through government, with some decisions based on tradition as well.

1.What is an economic system?

2.How do people make economic decisions?

3.Does the traditional economic system depend on authorities?

4. What economic system is the most widely spread?

5.What economic system is used in our country?

2. Поставьте глагол в соответствующее время, форму и залог.

1. I (not/to be) to Rome yet. 2. Sue (to play) tennis yesterday. 3. What film you (to  watch) last time? 4. Simon (to paint) a nice picture at the moment. 5. We were not hungry, as we (to have) lunch already. 6. The information (to be given) to me by him soon. 7. When this house (to be built)? 8. We (to work) in the garden at 5 o’clock tomorrow. 9. I (to read) this magazine since morning. 10. She (to laugh) loudly when I came into the room.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующую глагольную форму в сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточным условия или времени. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. If you took more exercise, you (to feel) better. 2. If I (to find) a wallet, I would take it to the police. 3. What would you do if you (to win) a million pounds? 4. I will be glad if some of my hopes (to be) realized. 5. He (to come) if you ask him. 6. You (to stay) with mother if I go to phone the doctor? 7. If you need money, why you (not/to get) job? 8. I would have completed the work if you (to help) me. 9. If he had studied hard, he (not/to fail) the exam. 10. If he (to pass) his driving test successfully, he will buy a car.

4. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующий модальный глагол или его эквивалент, переведите предложения на русский язык (can-could-will be able tomaymust-have to-had toshould).

1. Pupils ... come to school in time. 2. The child can talk now, but two years ago he ... speak only a few words. 3. ... you tell me the way to the post office, please? 4. I ... to study hard yesterday as I had a difficult exam. 5. People ... not cross the street when the light is red. 6. I can’t come now but I think, I ... to come in an hour. 7. I ... to go to work though I didn’t want to. 8. You ... go to the dentist if you have any problem with your teeth. 9. Take your umbrella with you. It ... rain. 10. ... I have another cup of tea?

5. Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи и переведите их на  русский язык.

1. Charlie said to Sue: «I am living in London now». 2. Margaret asked Tommy: «When did you see Helen?» 3. Judy said; «I don’t know what Fred is doing». 4. «What will you do?» asked Jim his brother. 5. «Speak up, please,» asked my grandfather. 6.  I went to London last year,» said Paul to me. 7. «Don’t go out until it rains»” said Terry to her daughter. 8. «I can ski well,» said Mary. 9. «I want to go away on holidays but I don’t know where to go,» said Sam to Mary. 10. «Clean your teeth every day,» said the doctor to the children. 11. «Do you enjoy soap operas?» said Ann. 12. I asked Erick: «Will you go to the party?» 13. «I must go to work,» said Nick to Nellie. 14. «How do you feel?» she asked me. 15. «Did you meet Mary at the station?» my father asked Pat.


Variant 3

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы после текста


Nearly 400 years ago European colonists came to America. The colonists began to settle. They cleared the land and transformed forests into croplands and pastures. The settlers lived in a group of houses around a central field. Here grazed the village cattle.

In 1862 the government gave land away free. A settler had to clear it, build a house and live there for at least five years. There appeared family farms. Over time, farming methods and farming areas increased. Today the average farm in the USA comprises 187 ha (462 acres). American farms became more efficient. Many farms adopted new technologies. Computers helped them to improve productivity and cut costs. In the 1990s American farmers invested more than $ 400 billion in land, livestock, buildings and equipment. American consumers pay less for their food than the people of many other industrial countries. By the mid-1970s a single farmer could grow enough food to feed himself, 45 other Americans and 8 foreigners.

Most of the farms in the USA are family farms. Only 3 percent of them are led by corporations that are owned by families. People who have small pieces of land cannot invest in the modern equipment. Often they sell their land to other farmers. There are tenant farmers who rent this land for cash or give the owner a part of the crops they grow. Owners of large farms hire seasonal workers. Many of these seasonal workers travel from farm to farm. They stay only for the period of picking crops. They are known as migrant workers. The USA is divided into six main regions.

The Northeast region does not have large areas of good land. But you can find dairy and poultry farms in several areas. Maine is famous for potatoes

The Great Lakes region is also an important area for farming. Corn, wheat and dairy products are the most important agricultural items. Farmers often rotate soybeans — that is, planting corn in a field one year and soybeans the  next. The region has enough rainfall, which is very important for hay, grown to feed dairy cattle. Wisconsin is the most important dairy state in the region.

1.When did the European colonists come to America?

2.How did the settlers  live?

3.When and how did family farm appear?

4.How do American farmer improve productivity?

5.What kind of farm are the most typical in the USA?

2. Поставьте глагол в соответствующее время, форму и залог.

1. Please, open the door. Somebody (to knock). 2. Denise was hurt when she (to play) basketball. 3. He hopes he (to find) the clue to this case. 4. A correspondent usually (to visit) a lot of places. 5. What duties you (to have)? 6. This house (to be sold) yesterday. 7. What time he always (to leave) for work? 8. Erich (to hide) the letter before his mother entered the room. 9. Sue (to finish) the housework by the evening today. 10. Vegetables (to be bought) at the greengrocer’s.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующую глагольную форму в сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточным условия или времени. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. If the dog keeps barking, the neighbours (to complain). 2. The boss will be angry if you (to arrive) late. 3. You would learn English more easily if you (to study) a little every day. 4. We would have had a party if Alan (to pass) his driving test. 5. You (to wait) until he comes back? 6. If I had found the book, I (to let) you know. 7. Let’s drop at the café after we (to do) the sightseeing. 8. As soon as the lesson (to end), I will go home. 9. I wouldn’t have bought that dress if it (to be) expensive. 10. If they (not to give) him the job, I don’t know what he will do.

4. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующий модальный глагол или его   эквивалент, переведите предложения на русский язык (can-could-will be able tomaymust-have to-had toshould).

1. I ... swim when I was only 3 years old. 2. ... you tell me the way to Minin square, please? 3. ... I switch on the light? 4. You ... to work hard to master your English. 5. I can’t visit you now but I ... to visit you tomorrow. 6. You ... not be late. 7. I ... to go shopping. We have nothing delicious for dinner. 7. If you want to keep fit, you ... do morning exercises every day. 8. Henry hasn’t come. He ... be very busy. 9. ... you tell me the truth? 10. It ... be interesting for him. He likes such kind of Art.

5. Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи и переведите их на  русский язык.

1. Jane said to me: «Switch on the light, please.» 2. «I’m so sorry,» said Dan to me. 3. «What are you interested in?» Peter asked Mary. 4. She said: «I’m not joking». 5. He asked «Do you get up at 7?» 6. They asked «Who is this girl?» 7. She said: «Call me back!»  8. She said: «Wake me up at 8!» 9. He asked: «Where do you live?» 10. They asked, «Have you brought a newspaper?» 11. She said: «I can’t help him.» 12. She said «I shan’t visit you tomorrow» 13. He asked: «Where did he go yesterday?» 14. They asked: «Does she smoke?» 15. She said: «Pass me the salt, please!»


Variant 4

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык. Ответьте на вопросы после текста


Agriculture, one of Britain's most important industries, supplies nearly two-thirds of the country's food. British agriculture is efficient, for it is based on modern technology and research.

Nearly 80 % of the land is used for agriculture. The total agricultural acreage of Great Britain is about 45.000.000 acres. Soils vary from the poor ones of highland Britain to the rich fertile soils in the eastern and south­eastern parts of England.

Britain is self-sufficient in milk, eggs, to a very great extent in meat, potatoes, wheat. However, it needs to import butter, cheese, sugar and some other agricultural products.

There are about 55 000 farms in Britain. They are not large. An average sized farm is about 30-40 acres. There are three main types of farming in Great Britain: pastoral, arable, mixed. 60 % of farms are developed mainly to dairying or beef cattle and sheep. Sheep and cattle are reared in the hill and moorland areas of Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and south-western England. Milk production is of the first importance in the structure of British agriculture.

Pig breeding is carried on in most areas but is particularly important in southern England, north-east Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Arable farms are mainly in the eastern part of the country. The main cereal crops in Great Britain are wheat, barley and oats. Rye is grown in small quantities for use as cattle fodder.

Great Britain produces different kinds of fruit: apples, pears, cherries, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries and others. Potatoes are grown for sale, for fodder and for seed.

Modern machines: tractors, combines and other equipment are used on British farms. But today the main tendency in British agriculture is that small traditional farms are gradually disappearing because they cannot compete with big industrial farms.

Private woods  make up 56 % of the total forests area in Great. Britain.

Woodlands cover an estimated 2,2 million hectares.

Britain's second major source of food is the surrounding sea. The fishing industry provides about 70 % of British fish supplies

1.What are large areas in hill countries used for?

2.What does Britain need to import?

3. What is the main tendency of agricultural development of the country today?

4.What is Britain’s second major source of food?

2.  Поставьте глагол в соответствующее время, форму и залог.

1. Columbus (to discover) America. 2. Italian (to be spoken) in Italy. 3. Some people (to see) a UFO in the sky above London last night. 4. Your photographs just (to be given) to your husband. 5. The thief (to escape) before the police came. 6. The Mona (to be painted) by Da Vinci. 7. Denise (to listen) to music for two hours already. 8. Mark (to live) in New York? 9. I’d like to know who (to talk) now? 10. Sue (to sleep) when they entered the room.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующую глагольную форму в сложноподчиненных предложениях с придаточным условия или времени. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Martha will go to the Zoo tomorrow if she (be) a good girl. 2. Tell Mary she must visit the Tower if she ever (go) to London. 3. If Clyde had worked harder he (pass) the exam. 4.If I had known that you were leaving I (buy) you a present. 5. Michael (stay) with us before Mr Punch returns. 6. Julian will be ill if he (eat) so much. 7. Anthony (come) if he had known about the troubles. 8. If Leonora were older, she (have) more sense. 9. Mabel will be very angry if you (break) any more plates. 10. Leslie will go to a cafe when the concert (be) over.

4. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующий модальный глагол или его эквивалент, переведите предложения на русский язык (can-could-will be able tomaymust-have to-had toshould).

1. The doctor said, “The child is very ill. He ... be taken to the hospital at once.” 2. Everybody ... learn a foreign language. 3. You ... not drive a car at night without lights on. 4. We ... not live without food and water so we ... eat and drink. 5. There are no buses or taxis here so we ... to walk. 6. ... I use your phone? 7. I ... speak English a little when I was a child. 8. I ... to call you when I am free. 9. I ... to get up early yesterday as I had the important meeting. 10. ... you tell me the way to Gorky square, please?

5. Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи и переведите их на  русский язык.

1. He said, «I went to get this book because I have not read it.» 2. She said, «I have spoken to Mr. Brown and he will be here in an hour. 3. They asked us, «Will you attend our conference this week?» 4. She said to me, «Give me some time to think.» 5. He said to me, «Are you familiar with this text?» 6.  He asked the girl, «How did you manage to carry that heavy box?» 7. She said, «Don’t shut the window!» 8. «I must go home because it is getting late,» she said. 9. «Are you going to London?» the strange boy asked Oliver. 10. «The sailors know the place,» said the captain. 11. «It is too cold today,» said his sister. 12. «Can you make your report this week?» asked me the teacher. 13. «I haven’t finished packing yet,» said Mary. 14. The teacher said to his students, «Open your exercise-books and write what I am going to dictate to you.» 15. «There is little work left to do,»  said Ann.

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